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[en] The purpose of this paper is to explain how the regulatory environment created by planning and building regulations interacts with land and property markets. Since this regulatory environment operates as a form of intervention within property markets in general and the development process in particular, it is essential first to understand the nature, structure and operation of land and property markets. These are covered in the first section. The second section identifies the aims and components of the planning system and building regulations. From this basis, four broad types of policy intervention are reviewed in the third section. These cover policies that seek to shape, regulate or stimulate market activity, and those that aim to build state or market capacity to produce desired outcomes. The final section uses the private residential development process as a case study to explore the extent to which state intervention can influence producer-consumer relationships in one important market sector. The paper argues that effective intervention in land and property markets requires the creation of a broad range of policy tools and their appropriate deployment to suit particular market circumstances. (author)
[en] Since the very beginning of the power systems reform process, one of the key questions posed has been whether the market, of its own accord, is able to provide satisfactory security of supply at the power generation level or if some additional regulatory mechanism needs to be introduced, and in the latter case, which is the most suitable approach to tackle the problem. This matter is undoubtedly gaining importance and it has taken a key role in the energy regulators' agendas. In this paper, we critically review and categorize the different approaches regulators can opt for to deal with the problem of guaranteeing (or at least enhancing) security of supply in a market-oriented environment. We analyze the most relevant regulatory design elements throughout an updated assessment of the broad range of international experiences, highlighting the lessons we have learned so far in a variety of contexts. Based on the analysis, we conclude by providing a set of principles and criteria that should be considered by the regulator when designing a security of supply mechanism. (author)
[en] Biofuels development and adoption in Nigeria has progressed significantly since the inception of the country's biofuel program in 2007. The rapid growth of the biofuels subsector in Nigeria inspired this review which aims at identifying the key drivers, agents, enablers, incentives and objectives driving the development. From the upstream to the downstream sub-sectors, there is an increasing entry of players and participants (private and public investors). This paper aims to explore the underlining drivers, enablers and incentives promoting the investments and participations in biofuels development, adoption and utilization in Nigeria. The research sourced data from basically secondary sources and undertook desk review of available information. The drivers identified are classified into the endogenous and exogenous categories. From the review, the paper presents a multi-components conceptual framework that captures key elements of the biofuel development in Nigeria. - Highlights: ► Delineate factors (drivers) promoting biofuels. ► Identify agents and their roles in incentivizing the biofuel development. ► Delineate incentives from enablers of biofuel development and adoption. ► Categorize objective motives of actors within the sustainability triangle. ► Propose a framework as a foundation for further research, policy analysis and intervention.
[en] This study investigates intervention strategy in stimulating energy-saving behavior to achieve energy neutral urban development. A tree structure overview of potential interventions classified into three categories is revealed. An integrated behaviour model is developed reflecting the relations between behaviour and influence factors. A latent class model is used to identify segments of local residents who differ regarding their preferences for interventions. Data are collected from a sample of residents in the Eindhoven region of the Netherlands in 2010. The results indicate that social-demographic characteristics, knowledge, motivation and context factors play important roles in energy-saving behaviour. Specifically, four segments of residents in the study area were identified that clearly differed in their preferences of interventions: cost driven residents, conscious residents, ease driven residents and environment minded residents. These findings emphasize that the intervention strategy should be focused on specific target groups to have the right mixture of interventions to achieve effective results on stimulating them to save energy. - Highlights: ► A latent class model to identify segments with preferred energy-saving interventions. ► An integrated energy-saving behavior model of casual relations. ► A tree structure overview of potential interventions
[en] Recent developments in feedback technologies and smart meters have advanced the introduction of energy consumption displays in the home. This could facilitate a significant amount of energy saving for the maximum number of homeowners. But empirical studies show that achieved savings in electricity consumption from in-house displays range approximately from 0 to 20%. In order to qualitatively explore the factors underlying such variation in the achieved saving, this paper studies how a small sample of householders interacted with the feedback from an energy consumption display. Following a heuristic model based on prior energy-related behavioral research, we explore the effects of the in-home display on household electricity. Results indicate that saving might be moderated by the level of user's engagement with the display, preceded by user's motivation to save energy, prior attitudes and, importantly, the level of involvement generated by the intervention. - Highlights: • We explore how householders interact with energy consumption displays. • Users' level of engagement with the display influence achieved savings. • User's motivation, level of involvement and prior attitudes are key elements
[en] Achieving a 'step-change' in energy efficiency behaviours will require enhanced knowledge of behavioural drivers, and translation of this knowledge into successful intervention programmes. The 'Energy Cultures' conceptual framework aims to assist in understanding the factors that influence energy consumption behaviour, and to help identify opportunities for behaviour change. Building on a history of attempts to offer multi-disciplinary integrating models of energy behaviour, we take a culture-based approach to behaviour, while drawing also from lifestyles and systems thinking. The framework provides a structure for addressing the problem of multiple interpretations of 'behaviour' by suggesting that it is influenced by the interactions between cognitive norms, energy practices and material culture. The Energy Cultures framework is discussed in the context of a New Zealand case study, which demonstrates its development and application. It has already provided a basis for cross-disciplinary collaboration, and for multi-disciplinary research design, and has provided insights into behavioural change in a case study community. As the conceptual basis of a 3-year research project, the framework has further potential to identify clusters of 'energy cultures' - similar patterns of norms, practices and/or material culture - to enable the crafting of targeted actions to achieve behaviour change.
[en] This paper evaluates whether the U.S. electricity sector is directed away from carbon-intensive technological lock-in, and which factors are contributing, or have potential to contribute, to a possible reorientation of the industry. With the application of a historical analysis of the electricity sector from the late nineteenth century through current day, this analysis finds that, although the industry still relies primarily on carbon-intensive fossil fuel operations, several recent trends indicate that the industry is becoming less carbon intensive, smaller in generation system scale, and more sustainable in operations. Crucial drivers - firm level interactions with technological change, industry leadership and market structure, government intervention and policy momentum, and citizen involvement and behavior patterns - that have traditionally shaped the structure, scale, and environmental footprint of the industry, have also played a prominent role in recent transformations. These results indicate that triggering or extraordinary events may not be necessary to initiate an escape from carbon lock-in in the electricity sector. Complete escape is not yet definitive, however, and it remains to be seen whether the industry is able to transform entirely before any significant climate change disturbances occur. (author)
[en] In this paper I use quarterly and monthly data from 1994 to 2014 to test if OPEC acts as a cartel, and therefore, it affects oil prices through members' coordination. I use Engle and Granger two-step approach, Johansen cointegration test and Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach of cointegration to examine the long-run relation between OPEC production and each member's production as an evidence of coordination. Besides, I apply Granger causality and Toda and Yamamoto tests to check the direction of causality between the OPEC production and oil prices (U.K. Brent and Dubai Fateh). The findings show no evidence of cointegration between the production of the members and that of OPEC, indicating no cartel behavior exists. Moreover, the results show that OPEC production does not cause oil prices; rather it is the other way around. - Highlights: • I test if OPEC acts as a cartel; it affects oil prices through members' coordination. • I use cointegration to examine long run relation between OPEC production and member's production. • I test causality between the OPEC production and oil prices. • The findings show no evidence of cointegration indicating no cartel behavior exists. • The results show OPEC production does not cause oil prices; rather it is the other way around.
[en] The paper discusses the importance of standards for sustainable bioenergy production. Sustainability of bioenergy production is crucial if bioenergy is supposed to contribute effectively to climate change mitigation. First, a brief overview of current bioenergy policies and of initiatives and legislation for bioenergy sustainability are given. Then, the authors show that under free market conditions undersupply of sustainable bioenergy will prevail. Two types of market failures are identified: information asymmetry and externalities in bioenergy production. Due to these market failures bioenergy is less sustainable than it could be. It is shown that mandatory certification and subsequent labeling can help to overcome the information asymmetry and lead to a more efficient market outcome since consumers can choose products according to their preferences. The authors conclude, however, that the existence of production externalities asks for stronger market intervention, for example in the form of binding minimum standards or taxes. The paper discusses the efficiency and feasibility of such policy measures and shows that mandatory certification combined with binding minimum standards can be an adequate policy choice to regulate the bioenergy market. (author)
[en] We analyze and evaluate the evolution of the deregulated market for electricity in Colombia in the period from 1995, when deregulation took place, to 2002. The case of Colombia is of particular interest as it is one of the most open markets in the developing world as well as being predominantly based on hydroelectrical technology. Furthermore, Colombia has had no blackouts since deregulation, in contrast to a number of neighboring countries, even though Colombia has had periods with severe adverse weather conditions. Colombia has so far managed to adjust the regulatory environment to keep investment at a reasonable level. Finally, we discuss the prospects for the Colombian system over the next 5 years