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Background and PurposeData on safety and efficacy of periprocedural use of heparin are limited during treatment of acute ischemic stroke patients with anterior circulation tandem occlusion. This study aimed to investigate the impact of heparin use during endovascular therapy of anterior circulation tandem occlusions on the functional and safety outcomes.
MethodsA retrospective analysis of the multicenter observational TITAN registry was performed. Patients with anterior circulation tandem occlusion and treated with endovascular therapy (EVT) were included, with or without extracranial carotid intervention. We divided patients into two groups based on periprocedural heparin use (heparin vs. non-heparin). The dose of intravenous unfractionated heparin ranged from 1500 to 2500 I.U. Primary study endpoint was 90-day Modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Secondary study endpoint included angiographic and safety endpoints such as hemorrhagic complications. A propensity-score-matched analysis was performed.
ResultsAmong 369 patients, heparin was used in 68 patients (18.4%). In the propensity-score-matched cohort, favorable outcome (mRS 0–2) occurred in 51.3% in heparin group and 58.0% in non-heparin group (matched OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.32–1.78; P = 0.52). Similar result was found in propensity-score-adjusted cohort (adjusted OR, 0.72; 95%CI, 0.39–1.32; P = 0.28). Likewise, there was no difference in the rate of successful reperfusion (mTICI 2b-3) (propensity-score-adjusted OR, 1.03; 95%CI, 0.50–2.09; P = 0.93) neither in safety endpoints between the two groups.
ConclusionsPeriprocedural heparin use during EVT of anterior circulation tandem occlusions was not associated with better functional, angiographic or safety outcomes. These findings are applicable for low doses of heparin, and further studies are warranted.
[en] The low-level effluent treatment plant (LLETP) treats effluent contaminated with radionuclides at concentration or activities greater than clearance levels, as established by the regulatory body. This study concerns the development of a new operational procedure for the treatment of low-level liquid radioactive waste containing alpha and gamma type effluents. Treatment of effluents will be by a flocculation-coagulation method, also known as chemical precipitation process. Therefore, a jar test will be used to simulate the flocculation-coagulation process and to determine the right amount of treatment chemicals that should be used. Analyses of the effluents before and after treatment were also done to measure success. Parameters used for this analysis were pH, temperature, conductivity, total dissolved solids, suspended solids, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and activity. (author)
[en] Bubble column reactor belongs to the general class of multiphase reactors in which gas come in contact with liquid. This reactor purposely used to mix the two phases or substances where the gas is dispersed into the column from the bottom and rises within the liquid and escapses from the upper liquid surface. Throughout the design and development phase, the reactor design specifications were identified to meet the experimental requirements for hydrodynamics study in a bubble column using the high-speed camera, industrial radiotracer, and radioactive particle tracking techniques. This bubble column reactor design comes with six different type of sparger design for various mixing pattern optimization. The design methodology structured as design development process, conceptual design selection process, detailed design specifications, product fabrication, and final product testing. This versatile reactor is developed to overcome the problems faced in understanding hydrodynamics behavior of using different types of sparger design, leading to design optimization for better mixing and blending efficiency in multiphase flow investigations. This study has demonstrated that the newly quadrilateral bubble column reactor is ready to be used for the various types of laboratory assessment including industrial radioactive experiments. (author)
[en] Stevia rebaudiana has recently gained the attention of food industry as one of the natural sweeteners. The sweet flavor is contributed by the glycosides compound included stevioside, rebaudiosides A to F, rubusoside, steviolmonoside, steviolbioside, and dulcoside A. Among these glycosides, the rebaudioside A and stevioside are 70% of the total glycosides in stevia. Therefore, they were used as stevia chemical markers in this study. The aim of the work reported here was to develop the extraction method of stevia using Hot Water Extraction (HWE) technique. In this paper, the extraction, precipitation and separation processes involved in HWE techniques for stevia were studied and developed. The glycosides yield from each processes were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Approximately 283.5 mg purified glycosides contained of rebaudioside A and stevioside was quantified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) in HWE. Therefore, from the obtained results suggest the HWE is an efficient technique for stevia extraction. (author)
[en] The main objective of the article is to discuss and to argue about transfer from a specific industrial sector to another industrial sector, of lessons learned from accidents. It addresses the following questions: why, what, and how can we better capitalise and use lessons learned from accidents? Attempts of responses will be achieved, firstly through the discussion of some theoretical foundations such as recurring accident patterns whatever the sectors, failures to learn shown by recurrence of similar events, the possibility of capitalising lessons into a knowledge and culture of accidents such as pathogenic organisational factors, and also with the methodological lessons of investigations that helped the development of organisational analysis. Secondly on the challenge of use, some examples of application cases in normal operation for the assessment conducted by IRSN of safety management practices in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) are provided. Finally, the rationale for using the lessons is stressed with notions as “royal road” and “gift of failure”, and some perspectives and barriers in theory and practice about these transfers are discussed. (author)
[en] Regulator safety culture is a relatively new area of investigation, even though deficiencies in regulatory oversight have been identified in a number of public inquiries (e.g. Piper Alpha, Deep Water Horizon). More recently the IAEA report into the Fukushima disaster specifically identified the need for regulatory bodies to have a positive safety culture. While there are clear parallels between duty holder safety culture and regulator safety culture there are also likely to be differences. To date they have been no published studies investigating regulator safety culture. In order to develop a framework to understand regulator safety culture the researchers conducted a literature review and interviewed safety culture subject matter experts from a range of HRO domains (e.g. offshore oil and gas). There was general consensus among participants that regulatory safety culture was an important topic that was worthy of further investigation. That there was general agreement that regulatory safety culture was multi-dimensional and that some of the elements of existing safety culture models applied to regulator culture (e.g. learning and leadership). The participants also identified unique dimensions of regulator safety culture including commitment to high ethical standards and transparency. In this paper the researchers present the results of the interviews and a model of regulator safety culture. This model will be contrasted with models being used in the nuclear industry. Implications for assessing regulatory safety culture will be discussed. (author)
[en] Human factors play an inevitable role in maintenance activities, and the occurrence of Human Errors (HEs) affects system reliability and safety, equipment performance and economic results. The high HE rate increased researchers’ attention towards Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) and HE assessment approaches. In these approaches, various environmental and individual factors influence the performance of maintenance operators affecting Human Error Probability (HEP) with a consequent variability in the success of intervention. However, a deep analysis of such factors in the maintenance field, often called Performance Shaping Factors (PSFs), is still missing. This has led the authors to systematically evaluate the literature on Human Error in Maintenance (HEM) and on the PSFs, in order to provide a shared PSF taxonomy. A Systematic Literature Review (SLR) was conducted to identify and select peer-reviewed papers that provided evidence on the relationship between maintenance activities and human performance. The obtained results provided a wide overview in the field of interest, shedding light on three main research areas of investigation: methodologies for human error analysis in maintenance, performance shaping factors and maintenance error consequences. In particular, papers belonging to the area of PSFs were analysed in-depth in order to identify and classify the PSFs, with the aim of achieving the PSF taxonomy for maintenance activities. The effects of each PSF on human reliability were defined and detailed. Findings: A total of 63 studies were selected and then analysed through a systematic methodology. 46% of these studies presented a qualitative/quantitative assessment of PSFs through application in different maintenance activities. Starting from the findings of the aforementioned papers, a PSF taxonomy specific for maintenance activities was proposed. This taxonomy represents an important contribution for researchers and practitioners towards the improvement of HRA methods and their applications in industrial maintenance.The analysis outlines the relevance of considering HEM because different error types occur during the maintenance process with non-negligible effects on the system. Despite a growing interest in HE assessment in maintenance, a deep analysis of PSFs in this field and a shared PSF taxonomy are missing. This paper fills the gap in the literature with the creation of a PSF taxonomy in industrial maintenance. The proposed taxonomy is a valuable contribution for growing the awareness of researchers and practitioners about factors influencing maintainers’ performance.