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[en] Regulator safety culture is a relatively new area of investigation, even though deficiencies in regulatory oversight have been identified in a number of public inquiries (e.g. Piper Alpha, Deep Water Horizon). More recently the IAEA report into the Fukushima disaster specifically identified the need for regulatory bodies to have a positive safety culture. While there are clear parallels between duty holder safety culture and regulator safety culture there are also likely to be differences. To date they have been no published studies investigating regulator safety culture. In order to develop a framework to understand regulator safety culture the researchers conducted a literature review and interviewed safety culture subject matter experts from a range of HRO domains (e.g. offshore oil and gas). There was general consensus among participants that regulatory safety culture was an important topic that was worthy of further investigation. That there was general agreement that regulatory safety culture was multi-dimensional and that some of the elements of existing safety culture models applied to regulator culture (e.g. learning and leadership). The participants also identified unique dimensions of regulator safety culture including commitment to high ethical standards and transparency. In this paper the researchers present the results of the interviews and a model of regulator safety culture. This model will be contrasted with models being used in the nuclear industry. Implications for assessing regulatory safety culture will be discussed. (author)
[en] Human factors play an inevitable role in maintenance activities, and the occurrence of Human Errors (HEs) affects system reliability and safety, equipment performance and economic results. The high HE rate increased researchers’ attention towards Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) and HE assessment approaches. In these approaches, various environmental and individual factors influence the performance of maintenance operators affecting Human Error Probability (HEP) with a consequent variability in the success of intervention. However, a deep analysis of such factors in the maintenance field, often called Performance Shaping Factors (PSFs), is still missing. This has led the authors to systematically evaluate the literature on Human Error in Maintenance (HEM) and on the PSFs, in order to provide a shared PSF taxonomy. A Systematic Literature Review (SLR) was conducted to identify and select peer-reviewed papers that provided evidence on the relationship between maintenance activities and human performance. The obtained results provided a wide overview in the field of interest, shedding light on three main research areas of investigation: methodologies for human error analysis in maintenance, performance shaping factors and maintenance error consequences. In particular, papers belonging to the area of PSFs were analysed in-depth in order to identify and classify the PSFs, with the aim of achieving the PSF taxonomy for maintenance activities. The effects of each PSF on human reliability were defined and detailed. Findings: A total of 63 studies were selected and then analysed through a systematic methodology. 46% of these studies presented a qualitative/quantitative assessment of PSFs through application in different maintenance activities. Starting from the findings of the aforementioned papers, a PSF taxonomy specific for maintenance activities was proposed. This taxonomy represents an important contribution for researchers and practitioners towards the improvement of HRA methods and their applications in industrial maintenance.The analysis outlines the relevance of considering HEM because different error types occur during the maintenance process with non-negligible effects on the system. Despite a growing interest in HE assessment in maintenance, a deep analysis of PSFs in this field and a shared PSF taxonomy are missing. This paper fills the gap in the literature with the creation of a PSF taxonomy in industrial maintenance. The proposed taxonomy is a valuable contribution for growing the awareness of researchers and practitioners about factors influencing maintainers’ performance.
[en] The main objective of the article is to discuss and to argue about transfer from a specific industrial sector to another industrial sector, of lessons learned from accidents. It addresses the following questions: why, what, and how can we better capitalise and use lessons learned from accidents? Attempts of responses will be achieved, firstly through the discussion of some theoretical foundations such as recurring accident patterns whatever the sectors, failures to learn shown by recurrence of similar events, the possibility of capitalising lessons into a knowledge and culture of accidents such as pathogenic organisational factors, and also with the methodological lessons of investigations that helped the development of organisational analysis. Secondly on the challenge of use, some examples of application cases in normal operation for the assessment conducted by IRSN of safety management practices in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) are provided. Finally, the rationale for using the lessons is stressed with notions as “royal road” and “gift of failure”, and some perspectives and barriers in theory and practice about these transfers are discussed. (author)
[en] Product safety culture concerns the organizational culture that affects the integrity and reliability of products and services and thus the safety of those using them. This is a new topic within the sphere of safety culture which has been adopted by manufacturing companies, e.g. in the food and defense sectors. The paper introduces the concept of product safety culture with reference to the available literature and then examines reported cases of product failures where the investigation has considered organizational precursors. Product safety culture seems to be a variant of safety culture that weighs particular cultural dimensions. These might be worthy of additional emphasis when managing worker and process safety. The dimension in particular that would merit exploration in product safety culture would be safety systems. Safety systems refer to organizational safety policies and procedures that are enacted through worker safety behaviors that may have an impact on product integrity, as considered in the accidents described in the paper. Research is required to examine the impact of product safety culture on product safety outcomes (e.g. failures) and to determine to what extent typical safety culture dimensions could be replicated in this aspect of culture, and whether novel dimensions should be considered. (author)
[en] Young drivers have the lowest rate of seat belt use among all age groups. The objective of this study was to investigate and assess the seat belt use behavior of young drivers by means of various methods, including observational surveys, short interviews, and self-report questionnaire surveys. The results revealed that approximately two-thirds of young drivers wear seat belts. The self-reported rates of seat belt use were slightly higher than the seat belt usage rates obtained from the observational data. The results also showed that young passengers had a much lower rate of seat belt use compared to young drivers and elderly passengers. The logistic regression model for the observational data revealed that male drivers, SUV drivers, and subjects driving at night had a higher probability of driving without a seat belt. The results of the questionnaire surveys were consistent with the results of the observational surveys. The questionnaire surveys revealed that the reasons for wearing seat belts included safety, fear of getting a traffic citation, and obedience to traffic law. The main reasons for not using seat belts included discomfort and not believing that seat belts could save lives. The logistic regression model for the questionnaire data showed that drivers who believe that seat belts can save lives and drivers who attended a prior seat belt safety campaign had a higher probability of using seat belts while driving. The results will help policymakers to develop strategies that enforce and promote safer behaviors for this age group.
[en] Since the 12th Five-Year Plan, China has continuously strengthened capacity building of nuclear safety supervision and management, and nuclear safety supervision and management ability gradually increases. At present, the adjustment and optimization of economic structure leads to rapid development of nuclear energy and nuclear technology utilization business, the tasks of nuclear safety supervision and management are increasingly heavy, and the requirements of nuclear safety supervision and management are more and more strict, as a result, current capabilities of supervision and management are difficult to well adapt to new age demands of supervision and management. This study firstly puts forward the connotation of capacity building of nuclear safety supervision and management, and based on the connotation brings forward the basic framework of capacity building of nuclear safety supervision and management, which is composed of institution building, agency building, equipment building and team building. Under the perspective of the basic framework, this study analyses the status quo of capacity building of national nuclear safety supervision and management, states the main ideas and directions of capacity building of nuclear safety supervision and management in the near future, and proposes some suggestions for strengthening capacity building of national nuclear safety supervision and management. (authors)
[en] This article in the Swiss Bulletin on Applied Geology presents basic thoughts that have been developed from professional experience gained by an engineer-geologist who especially considers communicative challenges. He presents a four-sided model which considers the interaction between the sender of a communication, the message itself and its receiver. The model considers factual content, self-revelation, relationship and the appeal made. A further structuring of a public ally effective project - its technical implementation, financing and acceptance - is discussed. Also, indirect communication such as via public media is looked at along with the possible distortion of the message that may occur. The author recommends early consideration of projects and the inclusion of specialised resources along with mutual trust between those involved in order to provide the necessary acceptance of a project
[en] The tool presented in the paper is recommended to support regulatory oversight of the safety culture in German nuclear power plants taking into account the particular challenges of the post-Fukushima decision to phase out civil nuclear energy production. The tool is based on empirical research findings on how observable actions and measures of leadership (e.g. clear instructions regarding the priority of safety) influence directly unobservable psychological drivers of human action (e.g. personnel’s motivation to act safely) and personnel’s observable safe performance which depends on these drivers. These empirical research findings thus capture how this kind of observable leadership activities will foster unobservable and observable aspects of safety culture and safety-directed human action. The tool supports inspectors’ collection, processing, and evaluation of information about this kind of observable leadership activities at the licensee’s. In total, 17 activities are considered which cover the entire range of leadership. The evaluation of collected information with the tool shows to which extent leadership fosters safety culture in the licensee organization and its members and, consequently, to which extent the safety culture of the licensee is a strong one. The tool is designed in such a way that it supports information collection during any kind of inspection on site and by inspectors after the familiarization which is necessary in order to use the tool (“en-passant approach”). Since many inspections are carried out in the course of time, the en-passant tool application can provide regulatory authorities with a steady flow of up-to date information which can comprise early indications of degradations in the area of safety culture. The tool does also support in-depth investigations and evaluations of licensee’s safety culture by inspector teams which comprise experts in the area of safety culture. For both enpassant approach and in-depth analyses, the tool provides proper guidance. (author)
[en] This guide proposes good contracting practices to be implemented from the design to the realisation of a methanisation unit. It notably formulates questions to be addressed when writing contracts. It addresses the definition of the design-realisation market and of its contract (market scope, contracting procedure), the selection of interveners with their skills and expertise (commissioner, building contractor, support and controls), the legal structure (allotment or turnkey solution), the relationships between interveners, interfaces and differences between mission, the chronology of the different contracts, the points of vigilance for the execution of the different contracts, and insurances (specific risks, insurer intervention, insurances during the building phase and during the exploitation phase).
[en] This survey is based on interviews of professionals and their clients (individuals) about the quality of energy retrofitting works and about the financing efficiency of the energy saving certificates system. Confidence being in the core of the system, the study aims at identifying the breaks and complex mechanisms which contradict its sustainability and which can lead to beneficiaries dissatisfaction