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[en] Aim: To systematically review the currently available high quality evidence evaluating treatments for moist desquamation in radiotherapy patients. Design: Systematic literature review. Methods: Electronic databases, websites, reference lists, key journals and conference proceedings were searched. Attempts were also made to uncover unpublished material. Relevant studies proceeded to data extraction and quality assessment. Results: Twenty studies were found; 10 were eligible for inclusion. Although many studies were small, none had unacceptably poor quality. No meta-analysis was undertaken as the studies were not homogenous in their interventions or methods. No convincing evidence for any intervention was found. Conclusion: Despite being recommended by many guidelines (College of Radiographers Summary of Intervention for Acute Radiotherapy Induced Skin Reactions in Cancer Patients (London, 2001); NHS Quality Improvement Scotland Best Practice Statement: Skincare of Patients Receiving Radiotherapy (Edinburgh, 2004)); there is mixed evidence concerning the use of hydrogels and hydrocolloid dressings. However, improved patient comfort was sometimes seen, which is arguably equally important. There was limited evidence to support other interventions. Further research is urgently needed.
[en] At the request of the outgoing Chairperson of the Board of Governors, her statement delivered in the Board of Governors meeting on 22 September 2009, regarding the working arrangements of the Board, is reproduced herewith for information
[en] Objective: To investigate the vascular vagovagal reflexes (VVRs) during interventional approach of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Methods: Twelve patients with VVRs during intervention of 528 patients with peripheral arterial diseases were analyzed retrospectively. Results: The 12 patients with VVRs belonging to mixed type, included 2 cases of occurrence during intervention and 10 cases after intervention. All patients recovered well without adverse reaction. Conclusion: VVRs should always be looking after and prompt management be ready in hand. (authors)
[en] This article presents the NRDA (Natural Resource Damage Assessment) that was devised by the American National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in 1996 to deal with the issue of compensating environmental damage. NRDA provides a clear framework for the different sides (victims, responsible persons...) involved in redressing environmental damage. The key element of this procedure is to impose remedial actions to be taken for recovering the initial state of the environment rather than to pay direct financial compensation. The European directive on the environmental accountability has been inspired by NRDA. (A.C.)
[en] A new approach to scenarios focused on environmental concerns, changes and challenges, i.e. so-called 'environmental scenarios', is necessary if global environmental changes are to be more effectively appreciated and addressed through sustained and collaborative action. On the basis of a comparison of previous approaches to global environmental scenarios and a review of existing scenario typologies, we propose a new scenario typology to help guide scenario-based interventions. This typology makes explicit the types of and/or the approaches to knowledge ('the epistemologies') which underpin a scenario approach. Drawing on previous environmental scenario projects, we distinguish and describe two main types in this new typology: 'problem-focused' and 'actor-centric'. This leads in turn to our suggestion for a third type, which we call 'RIMA'-'reflexive interventionist or multi-agent based'. This approach to scenarios emphasizes the importance of the involvement of different epistemologies in a scenario-based process of action learning in the public interest. We suggest that, by combining the epistemologies apparent in the previous two types, this approach can create a more effective bridge between longer-term thinking and more immediate actions. Our description is aimed at scenario practitioners in general, as well as those who work with (environmental) scenarios that address global challenges.
[en] The DGT/AS 04 circular defines a series of concepts concerning laws and regulations applicable to ionizing radiations. The most important concepts are: the different types of workers, the organization of radiation protection in the enterprise, the training of the staff, the assessment of the radiation risks, the obligations of the employer, the medical follow-up of the staff. It appears that about 300.000 workers in more than 40.000 enterprises are concerned by this legislation. The decree of 22. September, 2010 concerns the information that is requested by the ASN (French Authority for Nuclear Safety) when an enterprise addresses a demand for fabricating, using or detaining radionuclides or devices containing them. This document gives comments on some points and can be considered as a practical help. (A.C.)
[en] RASIA missions in many African Countries show in many cases that the regulatory authorities do not comply with international standards in term of independence. Such situation is due to the type of structure, or the administrative supervision and some times the luck of technical services. We are going to underline some questions to answer for improving the situation of our regulatory authorities by means of independence. (author)
[en] Complete test of publication follows. Interventional cardiology is recognized as a radiological practice connected with high level of patient skin doses as well as also with excessive exposure levels for physicians performing the examinations. Pediatrics represents a comparatively small, though increasing fraction of the overall number of the cardiac examinations, however the combination of higher radiation doses to children and the much larger lifetime risk per unit dose of radiation applied to children results in lifetime cancer mortality attributable to the radiation exposures from catheterization, which is significantly higher in children than in adults. Due to the limited published data on radiation doses to pediatric patients undergoing the cardiac catheterization procedure, the purpose of our study was to analyze the radiation load of patients and the occupational doses in Pediatric Cardiology Center in Bratislava where Siemens Cathcor 4.1 (biplane) is working with an undercouch image intensifier and DAP recording possibility. In our study 124 pediatric patients were included, aged from several weeks to 18 years, undergoing heart catheterization. For each procedure age, sex, weight and height were noted, and corresponding DAP, together with applied voltage, mAs, cine frames and fluoroscopy times were recorded. The study was performed within SENTINEL project under FP6 program of EC.
[en] The purpose of this paper is to explain how the regulatory environment created by planning and building regulations interacts with land and property markets. Since this regulatory environment operates as a form of intervention within property markets in general and the development process in particular, it is essential first to understand the nature, structure and operation of land and property markets. These are covered in the first section. The second section identifies the aims and components of the planning system and building regulations. From this basis, four broad types of policy intervention are reviewed in the third section. These cover policies that seek to shape, regulate or stimulate market activity, and those that aim to build state or market capacity to produce desired outcomes. The final section uses the private residential development process as a case study to explore the extent to which state intervention can influence producer-consumer relationships in one important market sector. The paper argues that effective intervention in land and property markets requires the creation of a broad range of policy tools and their appropriate deployment to suit particular market circumstances. (author)