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[en] The rapid growth in the use of ultrasound as a diagnostic imaging technology over the past forty years, has led to a demand for a workforce with the appropriate skills to perform and interpret the scans. In the UK, ultrasound investigations now comprise the largest group of all diagnostic imaging examinations.1 However, there remains no statutory regulation of the practice of sonography in the UK, and little recognition of the considerable training that many practitioners have undertaken to obtain the skills to become safe and competent sonographers. Many in the field consider that this should change, and are working to obtain professional status for the practice of sonography.2–5 Although the Health Care Professions Council (HCPC) has recommended regulation of sonography practice, this is unlikely to happen in the near future. This paper discusses the evolution of sonography practice and explores some of the complex issues associated with the professionalisation of sonography
[en] Gaharu oil extraction system developed by Nuclear Malaysia is a hydro-distillation system innovated from the tradition method and improvised with science and technology to enhance the process efficiency and safety. The main component of gaharu oil extraction system included the extraction vessel, condenser and collection decanter. Apart from the extraction unit, the gaharu oil extraction process also incorporated two major supporting systems. These systems are the liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) system and the water cooling system. The LPG system is solely used for heating the vessel, which contains a mixture of treated and grind gaharu bark and fluid, to produce steam. Meanwhile the water cooling system is used to supply the necessary cool water into the condenser unit and facilitate in the transformation of the mentioned steam into gaharu oil and distilled water. The dissipate water from this process will be channeled back into the water cooling ponds to let excess heat to be removed and allow the cool water to reuse again by the process. (author)
[en] Cost-effective protected area networks require that decision makers have sufficient information to allocate investments in ways that generate the greatest positive impacts. With applications in more than 50 countries, the Rapid Assessment and Prioritization of Protected Area Management (RAPPAM) method is arguably the tool used most widely to assist such prioritization. The extent to which its indicators provide useful measures of a protected area’s capacity to achieve its conservation objectives, however, has seldom been subject to empirical scrutiny. We use a rich spatial dataset and time series data from 66 forest protected areas in the Brazilian Amazon to examine whether RAPPAM scores are associated with success in avoiding deforestation. We find no statistically significant association between avoided deforestation and indicators that reflect preferential targets of conservation investments, including budget, staff, equipment, management plans and stakeholder collaboration. Instead, we find that the absence of unsettled land tenure conflicts is consistently associated strongly with success in reducing deforestation pressures. Our results underscore the importance of tracking and resolving land tenure in protected area management, and lead us to call for more rigorous assessments of existing strategies for assessing and prioritizing management interventions in protected areas. (letter)
Background and PurposeData on safety and efficacy of periprocedural use of heparin are limited during treatment of acute ischemic stroke patients with anterior circulation tandem occlusion. This study aimed to investigate the impact of heparin use during endovascular therapy of anterior circulation tandem occlusions on the functional and safety outcomes.
MethodsA retrospective analysis of the multicenter observational TITAN registry was performed. Patients with anterior circulation tandem occlusion and treated with endovascular therapy (EVT) were included, with or without extracranial carotid intervention. We divided patients into two groups based on periprocedural heparin use (heparin vs. non-heparin). The dose of intravenous unfractionated heparin ranged from 1500 to 2500 I.U. Primary study endpoint was 90-day Modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Secondary study endpoint included angiographic and safety endpoints such as hemorrhagic complications. A propensity-score-matched analysis was performed.
ResultsAmong 369 patients, heparin was used in 68 patients (18.4%). In the propensity-score-matched cohort, favorable outcome (mRS 0–2) occurred in 51.3% in heparin group and 58.0% in non-heparin group (matched OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.32–1.78; P = 0.52). Similar result was found in propensity-score-adjusted cohort (adjusted OR, 0.72; 95%CI, 0.39–1.32; P = 0.28). Likewise, there was no difference in the rate of successful reperfusion (mTICI 2b-3) (propensity-score-adjusted OR, 1.03; 95%CI, 0.50–2.09; P = 0.93) neither in safety endpoints between the two groups.
ConclusionsPeriprocedural heparin use during EVT of anterior circulation tandem occlusions was not associated with better functional, angiographic or safety outcomes. These findings are applicable for low doses of heparin, and further studies are warranted.
[en] Thanks to recent theoretical progresses and to the test bench of SN1987A, it has been possible to improve our ability to extract information from the future observations. In this paper we discuss a parameterized model of the neutrino emission. Two applications of this model are considered: 1) the investigation of the scientific potential of a future supernova for the study of the astrophysical parameters; 2) the expectations regarding the diffuse supernova neutrino background, namely, the relic supernova neutrinos
[en] The caves of the Naica Mine have been the subject of study by scientists from up to seven counties over the past decade. Up to fifty research works have published to date, most relating to the origin of the giant selenite crystals of the Cueva de los Cristales. Nevertheless, a great deal of knowledge has been generated about other relevant aspects of the Naica system. This paper puts together the vast information available about the Naica caves, from the discovery of the Cueva de los Cristales in 2000 to the more recent investigations addressing mineralogy, microclimatology and the use of gypsum speleothems as a palaeo-environmental proxy. Special attention has been paid to novel research lines that have started to use the speleothems of Naica as a study case, particularly in fields such as Astrobiology and Planetary geology. Moreover, the conservation challenges which these caves will face in the near future as consequence of the end of mining activities have also been addressed in this article. (Author)
[en] Chitosan is a chitin derivative that is distinguished only by the radical group CH3.CO on the polymer structure. Chitosan is a chemical compound derived from the biological material of chitin, an organic compound that is abundant after cellulose. Chitin is generally obtained from several groups of mushrooms and is also found in the shells of animals such as shrimp, crabs and other animals especially from the sea. In this purification process the kitosan used is derived from shrimp skin. This resource is used because it aims to expand the use of shrimp waste. This process of chitosan purification aims to identify the total molecular weight present in the chitosan. The improvement of this chitosan purification procedure is carried out because the existing techniques to purify chitosan give low yield. This poses a problem in terms of process efficiency and increases the cost of purification as well as excessive alcohol consumption and can pollute the environment. Among the objectives of this study is to study the quantity of chitosan obtained when the concentration of NaOH/ KOH is increased/ PH. In addition, it aims to study the precipitation of chitosan in water compared to alcohol as well as to test chitosan purified using new techniques compared to existing techniques. The purification method carried out is by using a mixture of chitosan with other chemicals such as NaOH/ KOH, ethanol, sodium acetate, acitate acid and water. As well as the equipment used are PH meter, centrifuge, centrifuge tube, stirrer, Freez drier and also FTIR machine. This purification technique is expected to increase the purification yield by up to 50 % and can reduce alcohol consumption by up to 100 %. (author)
[en] The low-level effluent treatment plant (LLETP) treats effluent contaminated with radionuclides at concentration or activities greater than clearance levels, as established by the regulatory body. This study concerns the development of a new operational procedure for the treatment of low-level liquid radioactive waste containing alpha and gamma type effluents. Treatment of effluents will be by a flocculation-coagulation method, also known as chemical precipitation process. Therefore, a jar test will be used to simulate the flocculation-coagulation process and to determine the right amount of treatment chemicals that should be used. Analyses of the effluents before and after treatment were also done to measure success. Parameters used for this analysis were pH, temperature, conductivity, total dissolved solids, suspended solids, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and activity. (author)