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[en] Highlights: • Present day methods deliver new knowledge about socio-ecological past of the lake. • Long term investigation reveals shifting goal setting of restoration over time. • Different, intertwined temporal scales complicate lake restoration endeavors. • Interannual weather variability influences restoration endeavors. • Prevailing understandings influence the anticipated futures of the lake. - Abstract: The history and future of the restoration efforts at the hypereutrophic southern Finnish lake, Tuusulanjärvi, are investigated. The interdisciplinary study is conducted within a modified DPSIR- framework, which allows us to both trace back and envision the future of the dynamics of the complex socio-ecological processes involved in restoration. The study covers the time period from the early 1970s up to 2030. The longitudinal study integrates environmental historical, limnological, and futures studies. The analyses reveal the multiple time scales of social and ecological processes present in long term restoration, the changing perceptions of and emphasis on restoration goals and outcomes over time, and the challenges that incidental and uncertain parameters, such as weather conditions, pose to sustainable and efficient restoration endeavors.
[en] According to the investigations results the given alloys consist of metastable β-phase, orthorhombic α'' martensit phase and thin dispersion hexagonical ω phase. The experiments proved high reliability of alloys samples and confirmes their acceptability for using in medical sphere. (author)
[en] Non-linear oscillations of gas in an open pipe were researched experimentally. Dependencies of the pressure oscillation amplitude were obtained for various frequencies of the gas excitation near the first proper frequency to the approach to the shock-wave oscillation mode. (paper)
[en] Highlights: • LDN is not a social norm and its framing is yet to recognise how people structure their thinking about neutrality issues. • SES-based LDN approach reveals what it means to consider humans as part of nature in the pursuit of LDN. • SES science and practice can inspire progress towards identifying appropriate LDN baselines for tracking change. - Abstract: Viewing humans as drivers of change operating outside the natural environment is unhelpful for defining interventions that effectively manage change and complexity. Indeed, there is now broad agreement that environmental governance needs to consider integrated social-ecological systems (SES) in order to tackle the world’s grand challenges of land degradation. This requires a more differentiated, innovative approach that considers how changes in SES shape the functioning of land systems as a whole, and the synergies and trade-off these changes may produce. In this study, we identify and discuss some of the ways SES science and practice can inspire progress towards land degradation neutrality (LDN) outcomes in an integrated manner, through synthesis of literature and relevant documents related to the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD). We do these by considering: (i) how LDN has been approached to date and the challenges likely to undermine progress towards achieving it; and (ii) an SES-based LDN approach relevant to the neutrality agenda, in particular, by describing how LDN might be thought of differently through an SES lens. We argue that an SES approach focusing on: (i) “people as part of nature”, not “people and nature”; and (ii) the frame of reference against which neutrality can be assessed across temporal and spatial dimensions, is necessary to both inform policy and guide actions of the different groups involved in avoiding and combating land degradation. Such an (integrated) approach adds a dimension (to achieving neutrality goals) not previously explored in sustainable land management and LDN research. Important next steps in operationalising the SES-based LDN approach involve empirical and field case studies, requiring interdisciplinary, mixed method techniques.
[en] Prompt recognition of diagnostic and interventional cerebral angiography related complications with institution of timely management is crucial to reduction of procedurerelated morbidity and mortality. In this article, we review the craniocervical vascular complications of cerebral catheter angiography and discuss management options. In this pictorial review, we divide cerebral angiographyerelated vascular complications into 2 broad categories, extracranial and intracranial, and discuss each complication briefly with an illustrated example and present management strategies. (author)
[en] Following a negative occurrence or event, putting corrective actions into place to address an organisation's systemic and administrative weaknesses is paramount to that organisation's future success. At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL, or the Laboratory), recent experiences emphasize this critical point. On February 14, 2014, transuranic (TRU) waste management at DOE facilities changed significantly when a drum of mixed hazardous and TRU (MTRU) waste from LANL breached after its disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico. Shortly following the LANL-WIPP event, several internal and external investigations and analyses were conducted by LANL, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and others, including the DOE Inspector General and an Office of Environmental Management Accident Investigation Board (AIB), to determine the cause of the LANL drum breach at WIPP. Internal investigations led LANL to self-disclose non-compliancies including treatment without a permit and improper waste characterization to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED), leading to a Settlement Agreement in January 2016. The Settlement Agreement, together with the other investigations, led LANL to identify and implement many corrective actions related to its waste management practices. The Laboratory recognized the need to revisit implementation of some fundamental concepts, and noted the following 'Lessons Learned': - Communicating requirements more clearly, - Using technical expertise more effectively, and - Improving implementation of policies and procedures. This paper presents the actions LANL has taken to prevent recurrence and demonstrate the Laboratory's commitment to compliant waste management requirements. They have focused on promoting a better understanding of the regulatory requirements in order to address the key root causes and the resulting Lessons Learned, as follows: - Ensure that all levels of a Project Team understand the regulatory requirements related to performing the work;- Engage RCRA subject matter experts in planning (for both initial project plans and subsequent modifications to plans); - Validate that Project Teams' plans and procedures will be effective in meeting regulatory requirements; and - Verify implementation. We believe the corrective actions taken since the drum event at WIPP will fundamentally improve our way of doing business throughout the Laboratory. (authors)
[en] The main objective of the article is to discuss and to argue about transfer from a specific industrial sector to another industrial sector, of lessons learned from accidents. It addresses the following questions: why, what, and how can we better capitalise and use lessons learned from accidents? Attempts of responses will be achieved, firstly through the discussion of some theoretical foundations such as recurring accident patterns whatever the sectors, failures to learn shown by recurrence of similar events, the possibility of capitalising lessons into a knowledge and culture of accidents such as pathogenic organisational factors, and also with the methodological lessons of investigations that helped the development of organisational analysis. Secondly on the challenge of use, some examples of application cases in normal operation for the assessment conducted by IRSN of safety management practices in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) are provided. Finally, the rationale for using the lessons is stressed with notions as “royal road” and “gift of failure”, and some perspectives and barriers in theory and practice about these transfers are discussed. (author)
[en] Regulator safety culture is a relatively new area of investigation, even though deficiencies in regulatory oversight have been identified in a number of public inquiries (e.g. Piper Alpha, Deep Water Horizon). More recently the IAEA report into the Fukushima disaster specifically identified the need for regulatory bodies to have a positive safety culture. While there are clear parallels between duty holder safety culture and regulator safety culture there are also likely to be differences. To date they have been no published studies investigating regulator safety culture. In order to develop a framework to understand regulator safety culture the researchers conducted a literature review and interviewed safety culture subject matter experts from a range of HRO domains (e.g. offshore oil and gas). There was general consensus among participants that regulatory safety culture was an important topic that was worthy of further investigation. That there was general agreement that regulatory safety culture was multi-dimensional and that some of the elements of existing safety culture models applied to regulator culture (e.g. learning and leadership). The participants also identified unique dimensions of regulator safety culture including commitment to high ethical standards and transparency. In this paper the researchers present the results of the interviews and a model of regulator safety culture. This model will be contrasted with models being used in the nuclear industry. Implications for assessing regulatory safety culture will be discussed. (author)
[en] This section treats of the following legal text: Sixteenth Amendment to the Atomic Energy Act (16. Amendment) of 10 July 2018. The German Bundestag has adopted the following Act: Article 1. Amendment to the Atomic Energy Act: The following Sections 7e to 7g shall be inserted after Section 7d Atomic Energy Act in the version promulgated on 15 July 1985 (Federal Law Gazette I p. 1565), as most recently amended by Article 2(2) of the Act of 20 July 2017 (Federal Law Gazette I p. 2808): Section 7e - Financial settlement for investments made; Section 7f - Financial settlement for electricity volumes; Section 7g - Administrative procedure; Article 2. Amendment of the Code of Administrative Court Procedure: Section 48(1) Sentence 1 Code of Administrative Court Procedure in the version promulgated on 19 March 1991 (Federal Law Gazette I p. 686), as most recently amended by Article 5(2) of the Act of 8 October 2017 (Federal Law Gazette I p. 3536), shall be amended by insertion of the following Number 1a after Number 1: 1a. the merits and amount of financial settlement claims pursuant to Section 7e and Section 7f of the Atomic Energy Act; Article 3. Entry into force: This Act shall enter into force on the day when the European Commission gives its approval under State-aid law or makes a binding declaration to the effect that no such approval shall be required; the Federal Ministry in charge of nuclear safety and radiation protection shall announce the date of the entry into force and do this by means of the Federal Law Gazette.
[en] Highlights: • Assessing scientific and societal impact of a nation-wide project on fish decline. • Financial, conceptual, intellectual and practical contribution of all stakeholders. • Changes of law, by-laws and prompted governmental investments of • Analysis after 13 years after the end of the project. - Abstract: Long-term reviews are necessary to appreciate the full outcomes and impacts of the scientific, societal and policy perspectives of transdisciplinary projects. Here, thirteen years after its completion, we assess the significance of a five-year (1999–2004) Swiss research project. The Fischnetz project aimed to identify the causes of fish catch decline and propose remedial measures. Engineers and scientists from different disciplines collaborated with practitioners and policy makers to approach this real-world problem and develop and implement policy interventions. Fischnetz proved to be an exemplarily successful case of how transgressive and socially robust research can be conducted and result in high-quality scientific outputs and policy impacts. As a result of Fischnetz, The Swiss Federal Water Protection Act was fully revised, two by-laws were changed, and several parliamentary interventions were launched. Fischnetz produced 68 scientific ISI-papers with higher than average citations. In this report, the project setup and its overall outcomes were analysed via a Mode-2 knowledge production approach.