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[en] This paper summarizes a number of fatal accidents that occurred in the Chinese construction industry from 2004 to 2016, and more detailed analysis is conducted on the data between 2010 and 2016. The data collected from 2010 to 2016 reveal that 3817 fatal accidents occurred during the construction of buildings and municipal facilities. Analysis is conducted to reveal the reasons of these construction accidents. The number of fatalities and accidents, the types of accidents, the effect of climate factors, the time period distribution of accidents, and provincial distribution are analyzed and compared. The results show that, falling from heights is the main cause of fatal accidents. The number of fatalities and accidents varies sharply across provinces and is closely related to the climate (the same gross output with less accidents in the cold weather areas). Due to annual transferring and traditional Chinese Spring Festival, project schedule is generally arranged less in December, January, and February so that a lower number of accidents are reported in these months. Daily, accidents in the afternoon are higher than that in the morning.
[en] ADaMS is CERN's Access Distribution and Management System. It evaluates access authorisations to more than 400 zones and for more than 35000 persons. Although accesses are granted based on a combination of training courses, administrative authorisations and the radio-protection situation of an individual, the policies and technicalities are constantly evolving along with the laboratory's activities; the current version of ADaMS is based on a 7 year old design, and is starting to show its limits. A version 3 of ADaMS will allow improved synchronization with CERN's scheduling and planning tools (used heavily during technical shutdowns, for instance), will allow CERN's training catalogue to change without impacting access management and will simplify and reduce the administrative workload of granting access. The new version will provide enhanced self-services to end users by focusing on access points (the physical barriers) instead of safety zones. ADaMS 3 will be able to cope better with changing and new requirements, as well as the multiplication of access points. The project requires the cooperation of a dozen services at CERN, and should take 18 months to develop. (author)
[en] An investigation of 2,6-diphenyl-1,4-benzoquinone (a class of substituted benzoquinones) and its dimer is performed to study the effect the solvents have on the reactivity of semiquinone radicals and their complexes and the courses of their reactions.
[en] Customs officers are used to the sound of radiation alarms. One third of cargo container shipments passing through the Phnom Penh Autonomous Port set off alarms on the sensitive radiation portal monitors intended to catch smuggled radiation sources and nuclear material. However, all the alerts since the device was installed in July 2016 have been caused by material such as tiles, fertilizers and construction materials. The port handles one quarter of the country’s foreign trade. A new smartphone application launched by the IAEA will help to distinguish between alarms caused by harmless amounts of naturally occurring radiation and alarms that might be a cause for concern from a security standpoint and warrant further investigation. The app is the outcome of an IAEAcoordinated research project that aims to improve the assessment of initial alarms. Researchers from the IAEA and 20 countries have worked together to improve the alarm assessment process by developing tools and algorithms for the detection software, with the goal of enabling it to distinguish between radiation from potentially smuggled man-made sources and naturally occurring radiation.
[en] Introduction Incident reporting, investigation and learning are core elements of quality improvement in radiation treatment. A programmatic approach to learning from one’s mistakes, and the free exchange of this information with others on a regional, national or international scale, has the potential to improve patient safety by preventing incident recurrence or propagation, identifying and correcting system vulnerabilities and promoting a ‘just’ culture of transparency and sharing. The Canadian National System for Incident Reporting in Radiation Treatment (NSIR-RT) was developed over the last three years and is presently being refined as a collaborative initiative between the Canadian Partnership for Quality Radiotherapy (CPQR) and the Canadian Institute of Health Information (CIHI). As an alliance among the key national professional associations in the delivery of radiotherapy in Canada, the CPQR is well-placed to provide the content expertise and community-level representation needed to ensure usability and utilization. CIHI are an independent not-for-profit organization that manages Canadian health data. As such, they bring to the project their technical and data-handling expertise as well as prior experience from development of a reporting system for Canadian medication incidents. We describe the development and refinement process for NSIR-RT and the results to date from a pilot deployment of the system. Methodology A key objective was to make NSIR-RT relevant to all radiation treatment programs in Canada regardless of location, size or practice orientation (academic vs. community care delivery). While participation in NSIR-RT is intended to be voluntary, development and refinement of the system was structured to motivate uptake and utilization by broadly engaging the Canadian radiation treatment community at every step of development. Figure 1 provides an overview of the development and refinement process.
[en] Bubble column reactor belongs to the general class of multiphase reactors in which gas come in contact with liquid. This reactor purposely used to mix the two phases or substances where the gas is dispersed into the column from the bottom and rises within the liquid and escapses from the upper liquid surface. Throughout the design and development phase, the reactor design specifications were identified to meet the experimental requirements for hydrodynamics study in a bubble column using the high-speed camera, industrial radiotracer, and radioactive particle tracking techniques. This bubble column reactor design comes with six different type of sparger design for various mixing pattern optimization. The design methodology structured as design development process, conceptual design selection process, detailed design specifications, product fabrication, and final product testing. This versatile reactor is developed to overcome the problems faced in understanding hydrodynamics behavior of using different types of sparger design, leading to design optimization for better mixing and blending efficiency in multiphase flow investigations. This study has demonstrated that the newly quadrilateral bubble column reactor is ready to be used for the various types of laboratory assessment including industrial radioactive experiments. (author)
[en] Human factors play an inevitable role in maintenance activities, and the occurrence of Human Errors (HEs) affects system reliability and safety, equipment performance and economic results. The high HE rate increased researchers’ attention towards Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) and HE assessment approaches. In these approaches, various environmental and individual factors influence the performance of maintenance operators affecting Human Error Probability (HEP) with a consequent variability in the success of intervention. However, a deep analysis of such factors in the maintenance field, often called Performance Shaping Factors (PSFs), is still missing. This has led the authors to systematically evaluate the literature on Human Error in Maintenance (HEM) and on the PSFs, in order to provide a shared PSF taxonomy. A Systematic Literature Review (SLR) was conducted to identify and select peer-reviewed papers that provided evidence on the relationship between maintenance activities and human performance. The obtained results provided a wide overview in the field of interest, shedding light on three main research areas of investigation: methodologies for human error analysis in maintenance, performance shaping factors and maintenance error consequences. In particular, papers belonging to the area of PSFs were analysed in-depth in order to identify and classify the PSFs, with the aim of achieving the PSF taxonomy for maintenance activities. The effects of each PSF on human reliability were defined and detailed. Findings: A total of 63 studies were selected and then analysed through a systematic methodology. 46% of these studies presented a qualitative/quantitative assessment of PSFs through application in different maintenance activities. Starting from the findings of the aforementioned papers, a PSF taxonomy specific for maintenance activities was proposed. This taxonomy represents an important contribution for researchers and practitioners towards the improvement of HRA methods and their applications in industrial maintenance.The analysis outlines the relevance of considering HEM because different error types occur during the maintenance process with non-negligible effects on the system. Despite a growing interest in HE assessment in maintenance, a deep analysis of PSFs in this field and a shared PSF taxonomy are missing. This paper fills the gap in the literature with the creation of a PSF taxonomy in industrial maintenance. The proposed taxonomy is a valuable contribution for growing the awareness of researchers and practitioners about factors influencing maintainers’ performance.
[en] The past reconstruction processes that took place after important earthquakes, and the development and progressive use of reinforced concrete (RC) since the beginning of the twentieth century, led to the creation of a mixed unreinforced masonry–reinforced concrete typology, hereinafter designated as URM–RC. The implementation of such practices, mainly in retrofitting interventions of existing unreinforced masonry (URM) buildings, has been spread all over the world, especially due to numerous vague recommendations given in certain building codes. However, over the years, these derived mixed URM–RC buildings revealed to be extremely vulnerable to seismic loads, and their inherent complex structural behaviour is still understudied. Only in recent years researchers have started to turn their attention to the seismic vulnerability of these structures, by studying and observing their particular damage patterns, mechanisms and interaction effects from coupling RC structural elements to URM loadbearing walls. Moreover, the beneficial nature of structural interventions with RC on URM buildings located in seismically prone regions is still a contentious issue for most of the research community. In this context, the present paper represents a stepping stone for the thorough understanding of the existing derived mixed URM–RC building typologies. A comprehensive cataloguing and categorization of the different intervention typologies is presented in order to support a more reliable assessment of their seismic vulnerability in future studies, as well as to design proper strengthening interventions so as to avoid future disasters. Furthermore, a comprehensive array of open issues is given in a section dedicated to the associated challenges.
[en] Trees have an important role in human life. Trees can improve air quality, stabilize ambient temperature, and so on. Nowadays there have been several incidents of fallen trees and resulted in fatalities. The tree stem investigation was done by gamma ray computed tomography (CT) technique to study the inside condition of the stem. The stem was scanned using the first generation of tomography called parallel beam scanning method. 80 mCi of 137Cs emitted gamma photons that penetrated the stem and received by the NaI(Tl) scintillation detector on the other side. Both gamma radiation source and detector were collimated using lead with 5 mm diameter of slits. There were 128 projections data which then reconstructed into image. It took about 522 minutes to collect the 128 projections data. The reconstructed image clearly showed there were density variations and two holes in the stem. Gamma-ray CT looks to be one of promising tree investigation technique. Further development is needed to reduce the scanning time and improve the image quality. (author)