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[en] The German government adopted the German adaptation strategy in 2008, which, in addition to adapting to extreme weather events, also proposes measures to adapt to gradual climate change. In the present study, the most urgent and extensive measures were examined in terms of their macroeconomic effects and ecological and social impacts as part of a comprehensive, expanded assessment. In general, both the macroeconomic assessment or a cost-benefit calculation of adaptation measures to climate change are confronted with a high degree of uncertainty about future climate change, so that decision-makers have to answer which adaptation measures and which policy instruments are available at all and which make economic sense. Construction measures are associated with considerable investments and generally have a positive economic impact on increasing growth. For example, measures in the field of transport and traffic infrastructure in modeling lead to a higher gross domestic product (GDP) path of up to 1.4 billion euros in one year and employment growth of up to 4,800. In addition to reducing damage caused by climate change, natural measures have positive ecological effects, since they bind greenhouse gases and increase biodiversity, for example. They are therefore to be advocated from the perspective of the extended assessment. On the other hand, their economic effects are usually relatively small, since the implementation of the measures generally only requires relatively small initial investments. Overall, from the expanded assessment perspective, they have a positive benefit-cost ratio and increase social welfare.
[de]Die Bundesregierung hat 2008 die Deutsche Anpassungsstrategie beschlossen, die neben der Anpassung an Extremwetterereignisse auch Maßnahmen zur Anpassung an graduellen Klimawandel vorschlägt. In der vorliegenden Untersuchung wurden die dringlichsten und umfangreichsten Maßnahmen auf ihre gesamtwirtschaftlichen Effekte und ökologischen und sozialen Auswirkungen im Rahmen einer umfangreichen erweiterten Bewertung untersucht. Generell sind sowohl die gesamtwirtschaftliche Bewertung oder eine Kosten-Nutzen-Rechnung von Anpassungsmaßnahmen an den Klimawandel mit einer hohen Unsicherheit gegenüber dem zukünftigen Klimawandel konfrontiert, sodass sich Entscheidungsträger/-innen mit der Frage befassen müssen, welche alternativen Anpassungsmaßnahmen, auf die ausgewählte Politikinstrumente abzielen, überhaupt zur Verfügung stehen und ökonomisch sinnvoll sind. Bauliche Maßnahmen sind mit erheblichen Investitionen verbunden und wirken volkswirtschaftlich in der Regel als positiver Impuls zur Steigerung von Wirtschafts- und Beschäftigungswachstum. So führen beispielsweise Maßnahmen im Handlungsfeld Verkehr und Verkehrsinfrastruktur in der Modellierung zu einem höheren Pfad des Bruttoinlandsproduktes (BIP) von bis zu 1,4 Mrd. Euro in einem Jahr und einem Beschäftigungszuwachs von bis zu 4.800. Naturräumliche Maßnahmen haben – neben ihrer Minderung von Schäden durch den Klimawandel – positive ökologische Effekte, da sie beispielsweise Treibhausgase binden und Biodiversität erhöhen. Aus der Perspektive der erweiterten Bewertung sind sie daher zu befürworten. Ihre ökonomischen Effekte dagegen sind meist relativ gering, da die Umsetzung der Maßnahmen in der Regel nur relativ geringe Anfangsinvestitionen benötigen. Insgesamt weisen sie aus der erweiterten Bewertungsperspektive ein positives Nutzen-Kosten-Verhältnis auf und steigern die gesamtgesellschaftliche Wohlfahrt.
[en] This comprehensive report published by the Swiss Nuclear Safety Inspectorate ENSI reviews the safety-relevant requirements placed on phase 3 of the sectorial plan. It discusses the requirements placed on the documentation concerning the application for general approval as well as requirements placed on the geoscientific analyses to be made. Safety-relevant factors for the proposed repository sites are discussed and compared. Further requirements placed on a site once it has been chosen and implemented are noted. The report concludes with a glossary and references.
[en] This report aimed at analysing pre-existing adaptation strategies. First, a qualitative analysis of the adaptation targets was conducted, which included the analysis of the German adaptation strategy, adaptation strategies of other European countries and of the German federal states, sectoral position papers of the joint working groups of the federal states and the federal government, and further strategic documents. The analysis revealed many synergies between adaptation objectives of different fields of action that share a of the German adaptation strategy “cluster”. Finally, the study revealed that in several fields of action of the DAS, which are, according to the progress report, in great need for adaptation action, only few climate change adaptation objectives were set this far. The integrated assessment of policy instruments for climate change adaptation is at the heart of the second part of the analysis, in which the evaluation approach was developed and tested in cooperation with the government agency network "climate change and adaptation". The aim of this analysis was to analyse the effectiveness of combined policy instruments of climate change adaptation. Activities so far suggest that the approach can be used in the further development of the adaptation strategy process. The present report was developed as part of a research project with the overall objective to systematically develop the technical knowledge that is required to identify potential climate change related damages and possibilities of a successful and efficient climate adaptation in Germany. In cooperation with the government agency network "climate change and adaptation" sectoral adaptation targets were analysed, discussed, and, where possible, evaluated in regard to their transformative character. Additionally, an analytical framework for the assessment and prioritisation of combinations of different policy instruments was developed. The results of the analysis were intended to provide advice to the Inter-ministerial Working Group on Adaptation Strategy (IMAA) on their work on the progress report and action planning of the German Adaptation Strategy.
[de]Dieser Bericht widmet sich der Analyse bestehender Klimaanpassungsstrategien sowie der Entwicklung und Erprobung eines integrierten Verfahrens zur Bewertung von Maßnahmen und Politikinstrumenten der Klimaanpassung. Qualitativ ausgewertet wurden hier neben Anpassungszielsetzungen der Deutschen Anpassungsstrategie (DAS) die Anpassungsstrategien europäischer Staaten sowie der deutschen Bundesländer, sektorale Positionspapiere der Bund-Länder Arbeitsgemeinschaften sowie weitere strategische Dokumente. Im Rahmen der Analyse ließen sich zahlreiche Synergien zwischen Zielsetzungen von Handlungsfeldern eines gleichen Clusters erkennen. Letztlich zeigte sich auch, dass in einer Reihe von Handlungsfeldern, in denen laut Einschätzung des Fortschrittsberichts großer Handlungsbedarf besteht, bisher nur wenige Klimaanpassungsziele gesetzt wurden. Die integrierte Bewertung von Maßnahmen und Politikinstrumenten der Klimaanpassung stand im Zentrum der zweite Analyse, in welcher ein Bewertungsverfahren für Politikinstrumente der Anpassung an den Klimawandel entwickelt und gemeinsam mit dem Behördennetzwerk "Klimawandel und Anpassung" erprobt wurde. Ziel dieser Analyse war es, für ausgewählte Klimawirkungen leistungsfähige Anpassungsinstrumente und deren Kombinationen zu untersuchen. Die bisherigen Erfahrungen hinsichtlich des Verfahrens deuten darauf hin, dass es künftig zur Weiterentwicklung des DAS-Prozesses angewendet werden kann. Der vorliegende Bericht entstand im Rahmen eines Forschungsvorhabens, welches das übergeordnete Ziel verfolgte, systematisch die fachwissenschaftlichen Leistungen zu erarbeiten, die erforderlich sind, um die potenziellen Schäden durch den Klimawandel sowie die Möglichkeiten einer erfolgreichen und effizienten Klimaanpassung in Deutschland zu identifizieren. In Zusammenarbeit mit dem Behördennetzwerk "Klimawandel und Anpassung" wurden sektorale Anpassungsziele analysiert, diskutiert und, wo möglich, hinsichtlich ihres transformativen Charakters beurteilt. Zusätzlich dazu wurde ein Analyserahmen entwickelt, um kombinierte Politikinstrumente zu bewerten und damit priorisieren zu können. Die produzierten Ergebnisse hatten das Ziel, die Arbeiten der Interministeriellen Arbeitsgruppe Anpassungsstrategie (IMAA) zum Fortschrittsbericht und der Aktionsplanung der Deutschen Anpassungsstrategie beratend zu unterstützen.
[en] This short report issued by the Swiss Nuclear Safety Inspectorate ENSI discusses the possible release of radioactive substances that may occur during the decommissioning of the Muehleberg nuclear power station. The public legal requirements were analyzed by the ENSI and requirements stipulated with respect to possible effects on drinking water in the region. Possible sources of contamination during the decommissioning are looked at. Also, other factors such as water level in river Aare which provides cooling and drinking water supplies in communities downstream from the nuclear facility are examined. The report concludes that possible contamination during decommissioning would be a factor of 300 below that possible during earlier operation of the plant.
[en] This comprehensive document published by the Swiss Nuclear Safety Inspectorate ENSI presents the opinions of the Oeko-Institute on the proof of safety for the reactor pressure vessel in the Beznau 1 nuclear power station in northern Switzerland. The opinions presented by the institute are listed. These concern the ultrasonic measurements made, the part-replica of the pressure vessel and its radiation-induced embrittlement as well as the quantification of uncertainties. The opinions of the Oeko-Institute are commented on by ENSI. The conclusions presented by the institute are heavily contradicted in detail by ENSI.
[en] This report issued by the Swiss Nuclear Safety Inspectorate ENSI presents a review of factors concerned with the storage of nuclear wastes. Legal requirements are examined and the terminology used is defined. Procedural methods and documentation are discussed, as are the responsibilities involved. Current status and external developments are looked at and relevant storage components and their aging are discussed and analyzed. The organization required is looked at. Transportability of the wastes and their aptitude with respect to their intermediate storage are discussed.
[en] This directive published by the Swiss Nuclear Safety Inspectorate ENSI describes the mandate received from the Swiss Federal Government for the period 2020-2023. After an introductory chapter on the scope of the work to be carried out by the inspectorate, its responsibilities and the associated boards and committees, the current situation is reviewed. Apart from the safe operation of nuclear facilities, the safe disposal of radioactive wastes is to be monitored by ENSI. The strategical aims of the monitoring activities also concern the decommissioning of nuclear plant, radiation protection, emergency measures, information and communication as well as personnel and finance policy. The financial framework of the ENSI is briefly looked at.
[en] This comprehensive document issued by the Swiss Nuclear Safety Inspectorate ENSI defines requirements placed on the final decommissioning of the Muehleberg nuclear power station in Switzerland. The background factors concerning the decommissioning of this nuclear power plant are discussed, as are the legal stipulations involved. These cover basic decisions concerning long-term operation and the commercial shut-down of the station. Preparations for the technical decommissioning of the plant are looked at. Also, aspects concerning the aging mechanisms affecting the plant are discussed, including material degradation in the components of the plant. The effects of decommissioning on safety aspects are discussed in detail, as are measures to be taken in this respect during the period up to final decommissioning. Also, measures to be taken with respect to environmental risks are discussed. Waste transportation aspects are also looked as well as organizational considerations. Finally the total of 18 requirements are summarized
[en] In 2015 Non Destructive Examination (NDE) investigations of the Beznau Unit 1 and Unit 2 RPVs were carried out to determine whether they contained hydrogen flakes like those found in the Belgian Reactors, Doel 3 and Tihange 2. Ultrasonic Testing (UT) indications were found in the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) of Unit 1, with the highest numbers and densities in Shell C. They were however dissimilar to those found in the Belgian reactors. As a result of the discovery of the flaws, at that point of an unknown nature and unknown influence on the integrity of the RPV, the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) asked Axpo Power AG, the licensee, to produce a structural integrity review of the Beznau 1 RPV before recommissioning. This led to an extensive investigation by Axpo to establish the nature of the flaws and justify that they did not impair the structural integrity of the RPV. ENSI appointed an International Review Panel (IRP) of experts to advise ENSI on the completeness and adequacy of the Axpo’s work plan and on the adequacy of the results as they became available and, finally, to provide an independent assessment of the Safety Case (SC) produced by Axpo. The responsibility for the safety of the Beznau Unit 1 is Axpo’s, and the decision on the acceptability of continued operation of the reactor is the responsibility of ENSI. This report provides the IRP assessment and advice related to those decisions. Axpo also involved independent experts and several expert sub-contractors. The IRP maintained a close contact with developments through workshops and meetings with Axpo and their experts, and ENSI during the period December 2015 to January 2018. It also had access to many interim reports as well as the final SC reports and support documents. The IRP considers that the Axpo SC is acceptable. This is based on the following: 1) It has been established beyond all reasonable doubt that the flaws are laminar agglomerates of alumina inclusions, formed during manufacture of the affected RPV shells, and which neither formed nor grew during service; 2) It has been adequately demonstrated that such agglomerates do not significantly affect the materials properties relevant for structural integrity assessment or sensitivity to irradiation damage; 3) The ultrasonic testing carried out on the RPV was sufficient to ensure that all flaws that might significantly affect structural integrity were detected and conservatively assessed; 4) A fracture mechanics assessment of the flaws, using highly conservative assumptions, demonstrated that the case is robust. The IRP was also asked to advise on whether there were any implications of the results of Axpo’s work program on the formal methods and requirements used to set operational limits. This resulted in an IRP recommendation on the choice of method used to determine the fracture toughness lower bound for the Beznau Unit 1 irradiated material.
[en] This comprehensive document published by the Swiss Nuclear Safety Inspectorate ENSI discusses the approval of measures attaining to the treatment of cooling water at the Leibstadt nuclear power plant KKL in northern Switzerland. The treatment concept with various biocides and the associated analytical monitoring program is described and the periodical monitoring of contamination in the cooling tower is discussed. Information and reporting aspects are examined. An ENSI assessment and the comments of the federal agencies involved are reviewed. Several requests and the final decisions made are noted. Several appendices and references complete the report.