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[en] The Mediterranean region is one of the most water-scarce regions of the world where intensive agriculture consumes more than 50 % of the water resources playing a critical role in the intensification of water stress. In this regard, industrial wastewater reuse in agriculture represents an unconventional water supply to the improvement of the water use efficiency in Mediterranean countries. Besides, the implementation of a strategy to treat and reuse WW from agro-food industries in agriculture will let a reduction of the water footprint of these types of industries (Inyibor et al., 2019).
[en] Fruit and vegetable processing (FVP) industry is one of the largest industrial sectors in Europe, and its activities include the preparation, preservation, canning, freezing and drying of fresh FV and the manufacture of juices. When fruits and vegetables are cleaned and processed, their residues are transferred to water both in solid and dissolved form. These effluents contain high organic and nutrient loads. Currently, the aerobic digestion is the pre-treatment system used in the FVP industry effluents and then it is sent to a municipal treatment plant. However, this on-site treatment generates large amounts of sludge that must be managed as waste. This dumping of sludge has clear negative environmental aspects.
[en] The main purpose of this study was to analyze the perceived outcomes of Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs) technologies adoption in order to sustain citrus farms in Mazandaran province, Iran. Study population consisted of all citrus growers in the villages of 12 counties of Mazandaran province, which a sample of 290 orchardmen were selected through a proportional random sampling technique. A questionnaire was designed to collect data which was both valid and reliable according to expert opinion and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient respectively. The results of the factor analysis showed that “market access and safe product exports,” “consumer’ health and environment-friendly behavior,” “safe production and public demand,” and “information sharing and strengthening local associations” were the four perceived outcomes of GAPs technologies adoption in citrus farms of Iran. These factors explained 65.02% of the total variance. These four perceived outputs of GAPs support economic, environmental, and social sustainability dimensions respectively.
[en] In the present work, agriculture waste based biocomposites were developed by reinforcing corn starch resin with various rice husk and walnut shell content of 5, 10 and 15 wt%. These fabricated biocomposites were investigated for physical, mechanical and thermal properties. It was found that the physical properties such as density and water absorption of the biocomposites remains in the range of 1.20–1.32 g cm−3 and 4.32%–8.68% respectively, while these properties decreased by the increase of rice husk and walnut shell content. The slower degradation rate of rice husk and walnut shell resulted in enhanced degradation period of the biocomposites. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed that the addition of increased rice husk and walnut shell content enhanced the thermal stability of the biocomposites. The evaluated mechanical (tensile strength, flexural strength, compressive strength, impact energy and hardness) properties were found to increase with the amount of rice husk and walnut shell content. The maximum tensile strength of 10.70 MPa, flexural strength of 19.60 MPa and impact energy of 0.362 J was observed for biocomposites with 15 wt% rice husk content. Similarly, the maximum compressive strength of 22.70 MPa and hardness of 21.31 Hv is obtained for biocomposites with 15 wt% walnut shell content. The rice husk based biocomposites gave better tensile strength, flexural strength, impact energy and thermal stability but resulted in lower hardness and compressive strength than the walnut shell based biocomposites. The biocomposites reinforced with walnut shell exhibit higher resistance to water absorption and biodegradability than those associated with rice husk. The results suggest that the developed biocomposites can be used as ecofriendly materials in lightweight applications. (paper)
[en] Water deficit (WD) is becoming an alarming problem in many regions of the world. Jasmonic acid (JA) is considered an important intracellular plant growth regulator. The aim of the current research was to investigate the important role of JA in mitigating the negative effects of WD on plant growth. Sugar beet production systems of two locations in Chaharmahal-Bakhtiari province, Iran. A field trial was conducted to assess the foliar applications of JA (0, 5 µM and 10 µM) and WD (50%, 75%, 100% plant water requirements) effects on physiological yield components of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) plants. WD significantly (p<0.05) increased catalase, ascorbate and peroxidase activities, and malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide and white sugar content (WSC); however, it caused a reduction in white sugar yield and root yield (RY). JA foliage applications further enhanced the enzymes activity in WD treated plants resulting in higher WSC, potassium concentrations, white sugar and final RY. Interestingly the effects of JA applications were more pronounced under severe WD (50%) compared to mild (75%) or well-watered plants (100%). JA (10 µM) foliage applications increased the RY and white sugar production by 21% and 24% under severe WD. JA can ameliorate the adverse effects of WD and increase the WD tolerance of sugar beet crop by upregulating the antioxidant enzyme activities to withstand adverse environmental conditions.
[en] The use of pesticides in agricultural practices is nowadays still necessary to ensure crop protection and thus a sustained food production. These substances, therefore, play an essential role in our society. However, pesticides are designed to dissuade, incapacitate or kill living organisms, and although as time goes by these are more selective and less persistent, the employment of these kind of chemicals always poses risks to humans and other non-target living organisms, especially if the environment becomes contaminated with them. A case in point is the presence of neonicotinoid insecticides in water compartments.
[en] In a circular economy context, agrofood industries have to seek more efficient ways for water and resources management. However, for an efficient management of water and wastewater, different aspects, all of them interrelated, must be taken into account: water-energy nexus, economical costs, potential resource recovery or social and environmental impacts among others. This makes that’s electing the optimum solution for water management in an industry is not a straightforward task. Industrial operators face two main challenges trying to obtain these solutions in their industries. First, to obtain reliable information about water consumptions and qualities at different points of the water network and second, to identify the best solution for water management considering at the same time water quality, energy, costs and possibility of resources recovery. In an industry 4.0 context and considering these two aspects, it´s clear that new tools for acquiring relevant information of the studied water network and simulation tools for decision support for the exploration of different alternatives are presented as very useful tools for finding efficient solutions.
[en] During the evolution of the human, agriculture and land utilization was inevitably connected with survival in nature. Human activity was not only restricted to the production of agricultural products but also extended into many other sectors, such as the production of several industrial-made products, mining, and usage of fossil fuels as a standard method of generating electricity. However, the intense urbanization phenomenon ultimately caused, during the last few decades, the degradation of our natural environment. As a result, the quality (and quantity) of produced food we consume has significantly decreased. The need for the evolution of alternative methods of cultivation is constant and always a hot topic, especially in order to confront the multiple problems that conventional agriculture has. Hydroponics, an innovative cultivation method, comes to solve many of these problems.
[en] Azerbaijan is one of the former Soviet Republic where the pesticides very widely used in agriculture sector. Quantity of pesticides per one hectar was about 38-45 kg. in the period 1980-1990 years. 34539 tons (71.7 %) from total quantity of pesticides planned for use are for 4 pesticides: sulphur (4th toxicity class), copper vtriol (1st toxicity class), preparation N 30 (3rd toxicity class), gessacloran (3rd toxicity class). 25481 tons (69,7%) are used indeed. 13633 tons, or 28,3% from total quantity were planned for the other 75 pesticides; 11,041 tons or 30,24% were used. After collapse Soviet Union although production was banned, but part of used pesticides degradated in soil enters to environment including the human by the food chain. These soils widely have been used for agriculture purpose in the farmer plants.