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[en] This paper reports the comparison of determination methods for extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) adulteration with two kinds of oils, refined olive oil (ROO) and soybean oil by 19FNMR, 1H NMR and chemical titration. The determination of adulteration of EVOO with ROO by 19F NMR was comparable to the conventional method. The contents of oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids of different oil samples can be determined by both 1H NMR and GC-MS. The results obtained from the two methods showed little differences. The adulteration of EVOO with soybean oil is detected by 1H NMR, although the limit of detection of the adulteration level is not less than 4.5%. The research demonstrates that 19F NMR can be a fast and convenient method to detect EVOO if it is adulterated with ROO and 1H NMR can be a fast and convenient method to detect EVOO if it is adulterated with seed oils.
[es]Este artículo trata sobre la comparación de métodos para determinar la adulteración de aceites de oliva virgen extra (AOVE) con dos tipos de aceites, aceite de oliva refinado (ROO) y aceite de soja, mediante 19F NMR, 1 H RMN y valoración química. La determinación de la adulteración de AOVE con ROO mediante 19F RMN fue comparable al método convencional. El contenido de ácidos oleico, linoleico y linolénico de diferentes muestras de aceites puede determinarse por 1 H NMR y GC-MS. Los resultados obtenidos por los dos métodos mostraron pequeñas diferencias. La adulteración de los AOVE con aceite de soja se detecta mediante 1 H RMN, el límite de detección de la adulteración no es menor a 4.5%. Esta investigación demuestra que la 19F RMN puede ser un método rápido y conveniente para detectar EVOO si está adulterado con ROO y la 1 H RMN puede ser un método rápido y conveniente para detectar EVOO si está adulterado con aceites de semillas.
[en] The North Maharashtra region comprises three districts, namely Jalgaon, Dhule, and Nandurbar. The region comprises 25 talukas, which are mostly covered by agricultural fields. Seasonality and trend analysis of rainfall over North Maharashtra region from 1901 to 2016 is conducted in the present work. The data were analyzed on the basis of season, i.e. winter, pre-monsoon, monsoon, and post monsoon. For trend detection, the Sen’s slope estimator and the Mann–Kendall test are used. The largest negative rainfall trends are found in the talukas Nandurbar and Jamner. In Akkalkuwa, the strongest positive trend is found. The rainfall trends in the recent years are discussed in the present work.
[en] The present study evaluated the effect of different associations between coulters and fertilizer furrow openers on soil disturbance, furrow depth and width, according to forward speed. The study was conducted on a farm in Santa Maria (Brazil/RS), in soil classified as sandy loam Ultisol. The experiment consisted of 24 combinations of treatments with three replications in a 2×3×4 factorial experiment. The combinations were formed by the interaction of the factors including: two types of furrow openers (hoe and double-disc), three types of coulters (no-coulter, smooth and offset fluted) and four levels of forward speed (1.11, 1.67, 2.22 and 2.78 m/s). Soil elevation and soil disturbance area profiles were obtained with the use of a micro profilometer, and disturbance values were calculated with the aid of computer software program Auto Cad. The disturbance area was not affected by speed; it was greater when using the hoe opener, and in association with the offset fluted coulter. Speed was inversely proportional to the depth of the furrows made by the hoe opener. Furthermore, the hoe caused the greatest furrow width (0.26 m) in comparison with the double-disc (0.24 m). The use of different coulters associated with furrow openers increased this variable (0.23 m for the no-coulter condition, 0.25 m with smooth and 0.26 m with offset fluted). The use of coulters combined with furrow openers reduces soil swelling, in approximately 8% for the smooth and 20% for the offset fluted. (Author)
[en] The Radiography Students from Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya share experiences of College Experience, Challenges, Myths and the Radiography dream. The Cultural shock and expectations towards Radiography has changed for the first timers’ students in the radiography class. This has motivated them to remove the fear of the unknown and negatives effects of radiation
[en] The Mediterranean region is one of the most water-scarce regions of the world where intensive agriculture consumes more than 50 % of the water resources playing a critical role in the intensification of water stress. In this regard, industrial wastewater reuse in agriculture represents an unconventional water supply to the improvement of the water use efficiency in Mediterranean countries. Besides, the implementation of a strategy to treat and reuse WW from agro-food industries in agriculture will let a reduction of the water footprint of these types of industries (Inyibor et al., 2019).
[en] Fruit and vegetable processing (FVP) industry is one of the largest industrial sectors in Europe, and its activities include the preparation, preservation, canning, freezing and drying of fresh FV and the manufacture of juices. When fruits and vegetables are cleaned and processed, their residues are transferred to water both in solid and dissolved form. These effluents contain high organic and nutrient loads. Currently, the aerobic digestion is the pre-treatment system used in the FVP industry effluents and then it is sent to a municipal treatment plant. However, this on-site treatment generates large amounts of sludge that must be managed as waste. This dumping of sludge has clear negative environmental aspects.
[en] Hydrological droughts are a major risk for irrigated agriculture in many regions of the world. The aim of this article is to propose an insurance tool to help irrigators manage the risk of water scarcity in the framework of the Spanish Crop Insurance System (SCIS). Only the United States Insurance System provides this type of coverage, but has very restrictive conditions. To determine the type of insurance scheme that better fits with the SCIS and to the Spanish irrigated agriculture, an expert panel was held with the participation of all stakeholders involved in crop insurance. Following the expert panel conclusions, an hydrological drought index insurance (HDII) addressed to irrigation districts (ID) is proposed. It would compensate water deficits suffered in the whole ID. We detail the conditions that the ID should fulfill to be eligible for HDII. HDII is applied to the Bardenas Irrigation District V (ID-V) in Spain, and the hedging effectiveness of the instrument is analyzed comparing ID-V’s gross margins with and without the insurance contract. Results suggest that the proposed insurance scheme could provide an effective means of reducing farmers’ vulnerability to water shortages and there is no major impediment for it to be included as a new line in the SCIS. This type of insurance can be generalized to any ID fulfilling the conditions mentioned in this paper. (Author)
[en] The evaporation of water is a major energy consumer around the world where the evaporation of water from agricultural products, natural resources, processed foods and feeds, and petrochemical products is required for long term storage, subsequent processing or other desired attributes.The control of product attributes associated with drying can also be challenging in terms of measurement and modelling which may lead to inefficiencies in the operation of a dryer.This discussion below will address solutions to improve the thermal efficiency of dryers and to control the critical properties of the product being dried. In addition, the benefits of haring information between the dryer supplier and the dryer operator will be discussed through the use of the Industrial Internet of Thing. (Author)