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[en] The article indicates the importance of using nuclear techniques in agricultural research and its development and the role the Agency has played since it was founded in 1957. Also the activities and achievements of the six sections that comprise the joint FAO/IAEA Division. In addition to a future look at the use of nuclear techniques in agricultural applications
[en] Comparison of furrow and trickle methods of irrigation to know their relative efficiency with respect to water applied and fertilizer used on tomatoes, cauliflower and lettuce as test crops using canal water, showed a significant saving of about 44 and 41 per cent respectively for irrigation water and fertilizer applied with trickle as compared to furrow irrigation. Trickle irrigated crops also showed a better response as regards the rate of survival, crop growth and time of maturity
[en] A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of crop residues and tillage practices on BNF, WUE and yield of mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) under semi arid rainfed conditions at the Livestock Research Station, Surezai, Peshawar in North West Frontier Province (NWFP) of Pakistan. The experiment comprised of two tillage i) conventional tillage (T1) and ii) no-tillage (T0) and two residues i) wheat crop residues retained (+) and ii) wheat crop residues removed (-) treatments. Basal doses of N at the rate of 20: P at the rate of 60 kg ha-1 were applied to mungbean at sowing time in the form of urea and single super phosphate respectively. Labelled urea having 5% 15N atom excess was applied at the rate of 20 kg N ha-1 as aqueous solution in micro plots (1m2) in each treatment plot to assess BNF by mungbean. Similarly, maize and sorghum were grown as reference crops and were fertilized with 15N labelled urea as aqueous solution having 1% 15N atom excess at the rate of 90 kg N ha/sup -1/. The results obtained showed that mungbean yield (grain/straw) and WUE were improved in notillage treatment as compared to tillage treatment. Maximum mungbean grain yield (1224 kg ha/sup -1/) and WUE (6.61kg ha/sup -1 mm/sup -1/) were obtained in no-tillage (+ residues) treatment. The N concentration in mungbean straw and grain was not significantly influenced by tillage or crop residue treatments. The amount of fertilizer-N taken up by straw and grain of mungbean was higher under no-tillage with residues-retained treatment but the differences were not significant. The major proportion of N (60.03 to 76.51%) was derived by mungbean crop from atmospheric N2 fixation, the remaining (19.6 to 35.91%) was taken up from the soil and a small proportion (3.89 to 5.89%) was derived from the applied fertilizer in different treatments. The maximum amount of N fixed by mungbean (82.59 kg ha/sup -1/) was derived in no-tillage with wheat residue-retained treatment. By using sorghum as reference crop, the biological nitrogen fixed by mungbean ranged from 37.00 to 82.59 kg ha/sup -1/ whereas with maize as a reference crop, it ranged from 34.74 to 70.78 kg ha/sup -1/ under different treatments. In comparison, non-fixing (reference) crops of sorghum and maize derived up to 16.6 and 15.5% of their nitrogen from the labelled fertilizer, respectively. These results suggested that crop productivity, BNF and WUE in the rainfed environment can be improved with minimum tillage and crop residues retention. (author)
[en] For several years the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been developing a Decision Support System for Agriculture (DSS4Ag) which determines the economically optimum recipe of various fertilizers to apply at each site in a field to produce a crop, based on the existing soil fertility at each site, as well as historic production information and current prices of fertilizers and the forecast market price of the crop at harvest. In support of the growing interest in agricultural crop residues as a bioenergy feedstock, we have extended the capability of the DSS4Ag to develop a variable-rate fertilizer recipe for the simultaneous economically optimum production of both grain and straw. In this paper we report the results of 2 yr of field research testing and enhancing the DSS4Ag's ability to economically optimize the fertilization for the simultaneous production of both grain and its straw, where the straw is an agricultural crop residue that can be used as a biofeedstock. For both years, the DSS4Ag reduced the cost and amount of fertilizers used and increased grower profit, while reducing the biomass produced. The DSS4Ag results show that when a biorefinery infrastructure is in place and growers have a strong market for their straw it is not economically advantageous to increase fertilization in order to try to produce more straw. This suggests that other solutions, such as single-pass selective harvest, must be implemented to meet national goals for the amount of biomass that will be available for collection and use for bioenergy. (author)
[en] Ever increasing demands of food are met through increased production by vertical or horizontal expansion. Vertical expansion needs increased inputs (fertilizer, chemicals, etc.) supply, leaving many negative effects on environment. Horizontal expansion limits the choice for future generations. Apart from agricultural activities, agro-based industries produce large amounts of waste material. Farm waste, along with industrial waste, used as fertilizer after necessary preparation would reduce the cost of production, increase production and clean the environment. Safe and proper disposal of saline water could reduce the risk of further salinization. Alternative methods of irrigation would solve the problem of waster logging. (author)
[en] Total and available amounts of Cd, Ni, Zn, Pb, and Cu have been measured in the soil and plants samples of southern Tehran agricultural land for three years. These areas are irrigated by domestic and industrial wastewater. Results of this study indicate that concentrations of these metals are higher than control samples, taken from untreated lands. Due to concentration of these elements in tissues of vegetables consume by the residents of Tehran. Therefore, it is recommended that the use of wastewater for irrigation to be halted
[en] This paper reports the comparison of determination methods for extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) adulteration with two kinds of oils, refined olive oil (ROO) and soybean oil by 19FNMR, 1H NMR and chemical titration. The determination of adulteration of EVOO with ROO by 19F NMR was comparable to the conventional method. The contents of oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids of different oil samples can be determined by both 1H NMR and GC-MS. The results obtained from the two methods showed little differences. The adulteration of EVOO with soybean oil is detected by 1H NMR, although the limit of detection of the adulteration level is not less than 4.5%. The research demonstrates that 19F NMR can be a fast and convenient method to detect EVOO if it is adulterated with ROO and 1H NMR can be a fast and convenient method to detect EVOO if it is adulterated with seed oils.
[es]Este artículo trata sobre la comparación de métodos para determinar la adulteración de aceites de oliva virgen extra (AOVE) con dos tipos de aceites, aceite de oliva refinado (ROO) y aceite de soja, mediante 19F NMR, 1 H RMN y valoración química. La determinación de la adulteración de AOVE con ROO mediante 19F RMN fue comparable al método convencional. El contenido de ácidos oleico, linoleico y linolénico de diferentes muestras de aceites puede determinarse por 1 H NMR y GC-MS. Los resultados obtenidos por los dos métodos mostraron pequeñas diferencias. La adulteración de los AOVE con aceite de soja se detecta mediante 1 H RMN, el límite de detección de la adulteración no es menor a 4.5%. Esta investigación demuestra que la 19F RMN puede ser un método rápido y conveniente para detectar EVOO si está adulterado con ROO y la 1 H RMN puede ser un método rápido y conveniente para detectar EVOO si está adulterado con aceites de semillas.