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[en] The North Maharashtra region comprises three districts, namely Jalgaon, Dhule, and Nandurbar. The region comprises 25 talukas, which are mostly covered by agricultural fields. Seasonality and trend analysis of rainfall over North Maharashtra region from 1901 to 2016 is conducted in the present work. The data were analyzed on the basis of season, i.e. winter, pre-monsoon, monsoon, and post monsoon. For trend detection, the Sen’s slope estimator and the Mann–Kendall test are used. The largest negative rainfall trends are found in the talukas Nandurbar and Jamner. In Akkalkuwa, the strongest positive trend is found. The rainfall trends in the recent years are discussed in the present work.
[en] In the present work, agriculture waste based biocomposites were developed by reinforcing corn starch resin with various rice husk and walnut shell content of 5, 10 and 15 wt%. These fabricated biocomposites were investigated for physical, mechanical and thermal properties. It was found that the physical properties such as density and water absorption of the biocomposites remains in the range of 1.20–1.32 g cm−3 and 4.32%–8.68% respectively, while these properties decreased by the increase of rice husk and walnut shell content. The slower degradation rate of rice husk and walnut shell resulted in enhanced degradation period of the biocomposites. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed that the addition of increased rice husk and walnut shell content enhanced the thermal stability of the biocomposites. The evaluated mechanical (tensile strength, flexural strength, compressive strength, impact energy and hardness) properties were found to increase with the amount of rice husk and walnut shell content. The maximum tensile strength of 10.70 MPa, flexural strength of 19.60 MPa and impact energy of 0.362 J was observed for biocomposites with 15 wt% rice husk content. Similarly, the maximum compressive strength of 22.70 MPa and hardness of 21.31 Hv is obtained for biocomposites with 15 wt% walnut shell content. The rice husk based biocomposites gave better tensile strength, flexural strength, impact energy and thermal stability but resulted in lower hardness and compressive strength than the walnut shell based biocomposites. The biocomposites reinforced with walnut shell exhibit higher resistance to water absorption and biodegradability than those associated with rice husk. The results suggest that the developed biocomposites can be used as ecofriendly materials in lightweight applications. (paper)
Purpose of ReviewThe relationship between climate change and violent conflict has been the subject of intense academic as well as policy debate over the past few decades. Adverse economic conditions constitute an important channel linking the two phenomena. Here, I review the theoretical arguments and recent empirical evidence connecting climate-driven adverse economic conditions to conflict.
Recent FindingsClimate-induced adverse economic conditions could lead to conflict by lowering the opportunity cost of violence, weakening state capacity, and exacerbating political and economic inequalities/grievances. The empirical literature does not provide robust evidence for a “direct” climate-economy-conflict relationship.
SummaryRecent empirical research offers considerable suggestive evidence that climate-driven economic downturns lead to conflict in agriculture-dependent regions and in combination and interaction with other socioeconomic and political factors. Future research should further examine the context(s) in which climate-induced adverse economic conditions led to conflict, and also identify and test the precise empirical implications of the theoretical mechanisms through which these adverse economic conditions lead to conflict using disaggregated data and appropriate estimation procedures.
[en] Water deficit (WD) is becoming an alarming problem in many regions of the world. Jasmonic acid (JA) is considered an important intracellular plant growth regulator. The aim of the current research was to investigate the important role of JA in mitigating the negative effects of WD on plant growth. Sugar beet production systems of two locations in Chaharmahal-Bakhtiari province, Iran. A field trial was conducted to assess the foliar applications of JA (0, 5 µM and 10 µM) and WD (50%, 75%, 100% plant water requirements) effects on physiological yield components of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) plants. WD significantly (p<0.05) increased catalase, ascorbate and peroxidase activities, and malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide and white sugar content (WSC); however, it caused a reduction in white sugar yield and root yield (RY). JA foliage applications further enhanced the enzymes activity in WD treated plants resulting in higher WSC, potassium concentrations, white sugar and final RY. Interestingly the effects of JA applications were more pronounced under severe WD (50%) compared to mild (75%) or well-watered plants (100%). JA (10 µM) foliage applications increased the RY and white sugar production by 21% and 24% under severe WD. JA can ameliorate the adverse effects of WD and increase the WD tolerance of sugar beet crop by upregulating the antioxidant enzyme activities to withstand adverse environmental conditions.
[en] Azerbaijan is one of the former Soviet Republic where the pesticides very widely used in agriculture sector. Quantity of pesticides per one hectar was about 38-45 kg. in the period 1980-1990 years. 34539 tons (71.7 %) from total quantity of pesticides planned for use are for 4 pesticides: sulphur (4th toxicity class), copper vtriol (1st toxicity class), preparation N 30 (3rd toxicity class), gessacloran (3rd toxicity class). 25481 tons (69,7%) are used indeed. 13633 tons, or 28,3% from total quantity were planned for the other 75 pesticides; 11,041 tons or 30,24% were used. After collapse Soviet Union although production was banned, but part of used pesticides degradated in soil enters to environment including the human by the food chain. These soils widely have been used for agriculture purpose in the farmer plants.
[en] To assess the role of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD) and indole-3-acetic acid oxidase (IAAox) during adventitious rooting (Ar) in semi-hardwood cuttings of the easy-to-root olive cv. ‘Arbequina’ and the difficult-to-root cv. ‘Kalamata’. Simultaneously, a histological study was carried out in both cultivars to investigate the tissue related with Ar development. The rooting experiments were carried out in ‘Kostelenos’ nurseries (Troizinia, Greece) and in Agricultural University of Athens. Plant material to set up the experiment was collected from current year shoots from 15-year-old mother plants of ‘Arbequina’ and ‘Kalamata’ at three different seasons (summer, autumn and spring). The auxin indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) at 2000 mg L-1 was used as rooting inducer. Main results: Analysis revealed that ‘Kalamata’ had significantly higher enzymatic activities before experiment onset and during Ar compared to ‘Arbequina’. Control cuttings of both cultivars exhibited increased enzymatic activities compared to IBA treated ones. IAAox was on average three times higher in ‘Kalamata’ than in ‘Arbequina’ and exhibited significant peaks during Ar. Similar peaks of POD and PPO activities were also detected. Histological analyses in ‘Kalamata’ revealed a continuous sheath of sclerenchyma ring and increased cortex thickness. Significant cell proliferation occurred in the phloem region in ‘Arbequina’ 15 days after planting and afterwards the root initials started developing in the secondary phloem from cambial cells.
[en] Aim of study: The aim of this study was to develop a riding-type fully automatic vegetable seedling transplanter enabling continuous transplanting work on 2 rows simultaneously with plug seedlings fed automatically. Material and methods: In design, the transplanter consists of a 4-wheel drive system, a seedling pick-up mechanism, a seedling feeding mechanism, a rotation discharging mechanism, a 2-row planting mechanisms, and a multi-source control unit. The 4-wheel drive system is a riding type well adapting to slops. The seedling pick-up mechanism could extract several seedlings at a time from the tray cells conveyed by the feeding mechanism, and then transfer them to the rotation discharging mechanism where they would be released into the 2-row planting mechanisms. The multi-source control unit was constructed to carry out the flexible automation of seedling transplanting. Being the first prototype, the performance tests under actual production conditions were conducted on a vegetable base. Main results: The testing results showed that the developed fully automatic transplanter could well grasp seedlings from the trays, transfer them, discharge them, and plant them into the ground. The success ratio in picking up seedlings and the qualified percent in planting seedlings were all up to 90%, and the coefficient of variation of plant spacing was less than 5% at the working speed of 60 plants row-1 min-1. Research highlights: The overall planting effects could well meet the requirements of agronomy cultivation, and the quality of automatic transplanting was satisfactory.