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[en] Based on the ability of some specific aquatic plants to concentrate metals in their roots, we propose an innovative biosorption system to clean up mining effluents. The system we propose represents an interesting solution to an important environmental problem, the decontamination of metal-polluted water and prevention of dispersal of metals into the environment. The solution presented is a form of ecological recycling of Zn, an essential primary metal in many industrial applications. Finally, the methodology developed is a sustainable way of managing the biomass from eradication or control of invasive plants.
[en] The formation of a common mycorrhizal network (CMN) between roots of different plant species enables nutrient transfers from one plant to another and their coexistence. However, almost all studies on nutrient transfers between CMN-connected plants have separately, but not simultaneously, been demonstrated under the same experimentation. Both conspecific and heterospecific seedlings of Cinnamomum camphora, Bidens pilosa, and Broussonetia papyrifera native to a karst habitat in southwest China were concurrently grown in a growth microcosm that had seven hollowed compartments (six around one in the center) being covered by 35.0-μm and/or 0.45-μm nylon mesh. The Ci. camphora in the central compartment was supplied with or without Glomus etunicatum and 15N to track N transfers between CMN-connected conspecific and heterospecific seedlings. The results showed as follows: significant greater nitrogen accumulations, biomass productions, 15N content, % Ntransfer, and the Ntransfer amount between receiver plant species ranked as Br. papyrifera≈Bi. pilosa > Ci. camphora under both M+ and M−, and as under M+ than under M− for Ci. camphora but not for both Bi. Pilosa and Br. papyrifera; the CMN transferred more nitrogen (15N content, % Ntransfer, and Ntransfer amount) from the donor Ci. camphora to the heterospecific Br. papyrifera and Bi. pilosa, with a lower percentage of nitrogen derived from transfer (%NDFT). These findings suggest that the CMN may potentially regulate the nitrogen transfer from a donor plant to individual heterospecific receiver plants, where the ratio of nitrogen derived from transfer depends on the biomass strength of the individual plants.
[en] Microalgal biomass produced from the phycoremediation of wastewater represents an important protein source, lipids, and natural antioxidants and bioproducts. Therefore, the microalgal biomass and their derived compounds are used in animal and aquaculture feed as well as human nutrition and health products. Many microalgal species have shown promising potential for many bioproducts. However, significant processes to find the optimum quality and quantity of microalgal biomass are still required especially when it is used as a replacement for aquaculture feed. The limitations lie in the selection of microalgal species and their production. The present review discusses the potential generation of bioproducts from microalgal biomass resulting from the phycoremediation of wet market wastewater. The consortium approach in wastewater treatment and the comparison between biomass production and available common feeds for aquaculture were reviewed.
[en] Cellulose from bamboo shavings (BC) separated and modified by grafting triphenylphosphine, which was used as an adsorbent for the removal of Acid Black 24 from aqueous solution. The quaternary phosphonium-based bamboo cellulose (PBC) was characterized by FTIR and SEM measurements. The FTIR studies showed that the quaternary phosphonium group was successfully grafted onto the BC molecular structure. The effects of PBC dosage, contact time, initial dye concentration, temperature, and pH on the adsorption performance were studied. The nonlinear fitting kinetics and isotherms models were also conducted. The pseudo-second-order, intra-particle diffusion and Langmuir models were more suitable for analyzing the adsorption behavior of PBC for Acid Black 24 dye. The adsorption activation energy was lower than 40 kJ mol−1, and the ΔH0 value was in the range of 20~80 kJ mol−1, indicating that PBC played a dominant role in the physical purification of dye. The results of thermodynamic analysis indicated that the adsorption was a spontaneous endothermic purification process. Adsorbents had a good reusability and high adsorption performance for dye removal. The adsorbents PBC had a good reusability and could effectively remove residual Acid Black 24 dye with good development prospects in the field of biomass adsorbent materials.
[en] Seaweeds are widely used as an alternate source of livelihood for coastal communities in different countries. Submerged habitats with nutrient-rich coastal waters along the Pakistan coast have rich algal stocks. With few exceptions, studies on seaweeds in Pakistan are mostly confined to intertidal areas. We have conducted preliminary surveys at Buleji, along the Karachi coast to access existing standing stocks of seaweeds. Samples were collected by SCUBA diving. Relative species abundances were determined using quadrat techniques. Overall, 17 species of macroalgae were recorded belonging to 2 major groups (Phaeophyceae 12, Rhodophyceae 5) and 6 families. Except diving site 6, the communities were dominated by Sargassum species. The majority of the recorded species had wide distribution ranges. Distribution patterns were mainly controlled by habitat type, depth, oceanographic conditions, and the nature of the sites. Many of the recorded species are commercially important. It is expected that further underwater surveys will help in exploring more algal beds along this coastline. A sustainable use of this algal biomass can provide an alternative source of income for coastal communities. Moreover, Pakistan has a long coastline with different geomorphic features; in this regard seaweed aquaculture in coastal areas especially near big cities can insert positive ecological impacts on coastal ecosystems as well as on the economic conditions of the coastal communities. (author)
[en] Stillage is an abundant wastewater from the sugarcane ethanol industry. It is rich in fermentable substrates and presents low-nutrient content, constituting a promising substrate for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production by mixed microbial cultures (MMC). This work assessed the enrichment of a PHA-accumulating MMC from acidified sugarcane stillage in a sequencing batch reactor under increasing organic loading rates (OLR) and no external nutrient supplementation. The OLR was increased from 1.0 to 7.1 kg COD m−3 day−1 in four steps. A PHA-producing MMC with high storage response was selected in all experimental conditions. The volumetric biomass productivity and the maximal PHA storage capacity increased continuously with the OLR, reaching 0.061 g VSS L−1 h−1 and 0.49 g PHA g VSS−1, respectively. The highest observed PHA storage yield (0.60 g CODPHA g COD.t−1) and specific PHA storage rate (0.169 g CODPHA g of CODX h−1) were obtained for the OLR of 4.5 kg COD m−3 day−1. The PHA produced was a co-polymer of 3-hydroxybutyrate (86–77%mol) and 3-hydroxyvalerate (14–23%mol). The performance of the biomass enrichment was comparable to those attained with other agro-industrial wastewaters, indicating the potential of acidified sugarcane stillage as a feedstock for MMC PHA production.
[en] An innovative system for isolating nanocellulose was established that uses Ni(NO3)2 transition metal salt without the assistance of mechanical disintegrations or mineral acid and was compared with the classic production by tedious acid hydrolysis. Optimization study on Ni(II)-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose isolated from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) towards nanocellulose yield was investigated. Response surface methodology-central composite design was used to design and optimize the experiments with three operating parameters: pH of Ni(NO3)2 (pH 2–4), reaction time (20‒100 min) and reaction temperature (25‒65 °C). The present study indicated that the nanocellulose yield as high as 81.37% was achieved under hydrolysis conditions of pH 3, 58 °C within 58 min. At the optimum conditions, the OPEFB derived nanocellulose rendered high crystallinity of 91.1% and excellent thermal stability of 341 °C. Evidence of the successful isolation of nanocellulose was proven by HRTEM observation revealing fibrils formed the long and interconnected network-like structure with the average width of 41.1 ± 1.6 nm and several micrometers in length, which resulted in high aspect ratio. Thus, the obtained nanocellulose via Ni(II)-catalyzed hydrolysis has numerous potential applications and represent a green alternative for the treatment of OPEFB. This study provided a facile high yield procedure for the production of nanocellulose with similar characteristics to traditional nanocellulose, which was significant to the commercialization of nanocellulose.
[en] At present, there are few studies on the quantitative analysis of connectivity from the perspective of biocenology. This study aimed to develop a new quantitative assessment method for river connectivity based on the analysis of the effect of river connectivity on the phytoplankton community in the Shaying River, which has multiple gates. The results showed that from the view of the phytoplankton density and biomass, cryptophytes were the dominant phytoplankton group, but the cyanobacteria density was highest in the summer. In the top 10 of degrees of dominance, there were 4 species of cyanobacteria, 3 species of cryptophytes, 2 species of diatoms, and 1 species of chlorophytes. Based on the seasonal compositions and variations of the phytoplankton community, the river barriers had a great effect on the community. The community composition of the Shaying River has been transformed from a river-type community dominated by diatoms to a lake-type community dominated by cyanophytes. PCA (principal component analysis) indicated that there were obvious differences in the community structure among the sections partitioned by various river gates. According to the relative positions of the entire phytoplankton community and the relative sequence of the river gates, a potential gradient representing the river connectivity can be found; thus, the river connectivity can be quantitatively described from the perspective of the phytoplankton community, and hereby, the corresponding quantitative methods can be established. Characterizing the connectivity of rivers based on biota will facilitate assessing the effects of multiple barriers and understanding river connectivity, and provide the support for the effective management of rivers.
[en] Hierarchical structure composites of loofah derived biomass carbon (PBC) decorated by aligned polyaniline (PANI) were successfully fabricated by simple carbonization and in situ oxidative polymerization. The morphology and structural of composites was studied. The microwave absorbing performance of aligned PANI/PBC was investigated in the frequency range of 2–18 GHz. The results indicated that aligned PANI/PBC with special structure possessed more distinct dielectric response characteristics and enhanced microwave absorbing performance. The minimum reflection loss (RL) value of aligned PANI/PBC was up to − 44.8 dB at 10.02 GHz and the effective absorption frequency width (RL < − 10 dB) is in the 5.58–18 GHz range with the thickness range of 1–3 mm. The excellent microwave absorbing performance of aligned PANI/PBC was mainly correlate with the multiple relaxation polarization, good impedance matching and the synergistic effect between PANI nanorods and PBC.