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[en] The perspective by Haberl et al (2013 Environ. Res. Lett. 8 031004) entitled ‘Bioenergy: how much can we expect for 2050?’ is timely and valuable. It deals with an important subject since contrasting views on the subject make it very difficult for policy makers to adopt policies that would allow ‘production and consumption of energy at sustainable levels’, in the words of the authors. It is therefore very important to sort out from the abundant literature on the issue which are the facts and which are the biases and preferences. (perspective)
[en] Four Taiwanese native Miscanthus floridulus lines, collected at altitudes of 260, 500, 1000, and 1500 m were cultivated in 2009 and 2010. The plant height and tiller numbers of four M. floridulus lines increased gradually along with the growing time. These M. floridulus lines had the tallest plant height and most tiller number after these species were planted 210 days. Line 3, which was collected at the altitude of 1000 m, had the ability to grow at low temperature. Line 3 M. floridulus had the highest plant height, tiller number, fresh and dry yields than other three lines. Fresh and dry yields of Line 3 were positively correlated to the plant height, tiller number, and leaf width, but showed no correlation with the leaf length. The correlation between agronomic traits and climatic data was also studied. Results can be used as a model for developing a non-food crop-based energy production system in the future. -- Highlights: → Miscanthus floridulus collected at 1000 m altitude had the highest plant height, tiller number, fresh and dry yields. → Fresh and dry yields of were positively correlated to the plant height, tiller number, and leaf width. → Fresh and dry yields showed no correlation with the leaf length. → The accumulative rainfall, temperature, radiation, and exposure time to radiation were positively correlated to the plant height, leaf length and leaf width.
[en] In this publication the Union for the Promotion of Oil and Protein Plants (UFOP) their activities. Presented are the public relations, the activities of the Commission biofuels and renewable raw materials and their members. Too it is reported on the gasoline station testing, as well as about the UFOP position paper on biofuels policy.
[de]In der vorliegenden Publikation beschreibt die Union zur Foerderung von Oel- und Proteinpflanzen e.V. (UFOP) ihre Aktivitaeten. Dargestellt wird die Oeffentlichkeitsarbeit, die Taetigkeit der Fachkommission Biokraftstoffe und nachwachsende Rohstoffe und deren Mitglieder. Berichtet wird noch ueber die Tankstellenerprobung, sowie ueber das UFOP-Positionspapier zur Biokraftstoffpolitik.
[en] Having received the Final Commissioning Protocol from the Ministry of Agriculture, Rural Development, Environment and Energy of the Extremadura Regional Government, Ence’s biomass generation plant in Mérida started to deliver energy to the electrical system in April 2014. With the construction and commissioning of the Sener turnkey project for the biomass plant having been completed, Ence - the engineering and technology group – set up the company Biomasa Mérida O&M S.L. to provide operation and maintenance works for the facility’s first two years of operation. Following signature of the provisional acceptance of the plant by Ence, Biomasa Mérida O&M S.L. accepted its mission and started work on 15 September 2014. (Author)
[en] Farmers in developing countries are one of the world's largest and most efficient producers of sequestered carbon. However, measuring, monitoring and verifying how much carbon trees in smallholder farms are removing from the atmosphere has remained a great challenge in developing nations. Devising a reliable way for measuring carbon associated with trees in agricultural landscapes is essential for helping smallholder farmers benefit from emerging carbon markets. This study aimed to develop biomass equations specific to dominant eucalyptus species found in agricultural landscapes in Western Kenya. Allometric relationships were developed by regressing diameter at breast height (DBH) alone or DBH in combination with height, wood density or crown area against the biomass of 48 trees destructively sampled from a 100 km2 site. DBH alone was a significant predictor variable and estimated aboveground biomass (AGB) with over 95% accuracy. The stems, branches and leaves formed up to 74, 22 and 4% of AGB, respectively, while belowground biomass (BGB) of the harvested trees accounted for 21% of the total tree biomass, yielding an overall root-to-shoot ratio (RS) of 0.27, which varied across tree size. Total tree biomass held in live Eucalyptus trees was estimated to be 24.4 ± 0.01 Mg ha−1, equivalent to 11.7 ± 0.01 Mg of carbon per hectare. The equations presented provide useful tools for estimating tree carbon stocks of Eucalyptus in agricultural landscapes for bio-energy and carbon accounting. These equations can be applied to Eucalyptus in most agricultural systems with similar agro-ecological settings where tree growth parameters would fall within ranges comparable to the sampled population. -- Highlights: ► Equation with DBH alone estimated aboveground biomass with about 95% accuracy. ► Local generic equations overestimated above- and below-ground biomass by 10 and 48%. ► Height, wood density and crown area data did not improve model accuracy. ► Stems, roots, branches and leaves formed 58, 21, 18 and 3% of total tree biomass
[en] Willows (Salix spp.) grown as short rotation coppice (SRC) are viewed as a sustainable source of biomass with a positive greenhouse gas (GHG) balance due to their potential to fix and accumulate carbon (C) below ground. However, exploiting this potential has been limited by the paucity of data available on below ground biomass allocation and the extent to which it varies between genotypes. Furthermore, it is likely that allocation can be altered considerably by environment. To investigate the role of genotype and environment on allocation, four willow genotypes were grown at two replicated field sites in southeast England and west Wales, UK. Above and below ground biomass was intensively measured over two two-year rotations. Significant genotypic differences in biomass allocation were identified, with below ground allocation differing by up to 10% between genotypes. Importantly, the genotype with the highest below ground biomass also had the highest above ground yield. Furthermore, leaf area was found to be a good predictor of below ground biomass. Growth environment significantly impacted allocation; the willow genotypes grown in west Wales had up to 94% more biomass below ground by the end of the second rotation. A single investigation into fine roots showed the same pattern with double the volume of fine roots present. This greater below ground allocation may be attributed primarily to higher wind speeds, plus differences in humidity and soil characteristics. These results demonstrate that the capacity exists to breed plants with both high yields and high potential for C accumulation. - Highlights: • SRC willows are a source of biomass and act as carbon (C) sinks. • Biomass allocation was measured in 4 willow genotypes grown in two UK field sites. • The greatest yielding genotype had the greatest below ground biomass at both sites. • Below ground biomass allocation differed by up to 10% between genotypes and 94% between sites. • Environment e.g. wind speed and soil characteristics affected biomass allocation
[en] This paper reported the optimization of glucose production from ammonia pre-treated oil palm trunk biomass via enzymatic saccharification process using response surface methodology (RSM). A set of experiment was computed by face centered central composite design (FCCCD) using Design Expert software to statistically evaluate the findings. Three independent variables namely: temperature (35 - 55 degree Celsius), pH (4.5 - 6.5) and enzyme ratio (cellulase: β-glucosidase; 3:1 - 7:1) were investigated under the given conditions designed by RSM. The experimental result (4.964 ± 0.006 g.L"-"1) was in good agreement with RSM model prediction (4.958 g.L"-"1) with an error less than 0.2 %. The RSM design has been proven to successfully predict the glucose response in this study. (author)
[en] In order to better understand the ecosystems of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, we studied the characteristics of the vegetation and soil on Mount Sejila in Tibet, at altitudes ranging from 3700m to 4700m was studied. Eleven sampling areas were examined, and the vegetation composition, species diversity, plant biomass and soil properties were measured in each one. Representatives of 99 different plant species from 26 families were identified, and the plant communities exhibited a clear degree of altitude dependence: some species were found in all samples while others were only present in a single sampling area. Plant aboveground biomass correlated negatively with altitude, but the species diversity (based on the Shannon-Wiener and Simpson diversity indices as well as evenness and species richness measurements) were not altitude dependent. Community similarity decreased as the difference in altitude between sites increased. The measured soil properties had significant effects on plant characteristics, especially the soil nitrogen, soil moisture and temperature. The results presented herein provide a solid foundation for a more comprehensive study of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau's ecosystems and will be useful in drawing up biodiversity and ecosystem preservation schemes. (author)