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[en] There is increasing evidence to suggest that adaptation to the inevitable is as relevant to climate change policymaking as mitigation efforts. Both mitigation and adaptation, as well as the unavoidable damage occurring both now and that is predicted to occur, all involve costs at the expense of diverse climate change victims. The allocation of responsibilities - implicit in terms of the burden-sharing mechanisms that currently exist in public and private governance - demands recourse under liability law, especially as it has become clear that most companies will only start reducing emissions if verifiable costs of the economic consequences of climate change, including the likelihood of liability, outweigh the costs of taking precautionary measures. This vitally important book asks: Can the precautionary principle make uncertainty judiciable in the context of liability for the consequences of climate change, and, if so, to what extent? Drawing on the full range of pertinent existing literature and case law, the author examines the precautionary principle both in terms of its content and application and in the context of liability law. She analyses the indirect means offered by existing legislation being used by environmental groups and affected individuals before the courts to challenge both companies and regulators as responsible agents of climate change damage. In the process of responding to its fundamental question, the analysis explores such further questions as the following: (a) What is the role of the precautionary principle in resolving uncertainty in scientific risk assessment when faced with inconclusive evidence, and how does it affect decision-making, particularly in the regulatory choices concerning climate change? To this end, what is the concrete content of the precautionary principle?; (b) How does liability law generally handle scientific uncertainty? What different types of liability exist, and how are they equipped to handle a climate change liability claim?; (c) What type of liability is best suited for precautionary measures or a lack thereof? Can the application of the precautionary principle make a difference to the outcomes of climate change liability claims? In order to draw conclusions concerning the legal uncertainties posed by climate change, the author draws examples from national legislations representative of the various legal systems, as well as from existing treaties. General rules and obligations relevant to climate change liability are examined, and a selection of actual legal cases from around the world concerning climate change, be it actual liability claims or litigation indirectly relevant to a claim, is also presented. As an overview of the different legal challenges created by climate change liability, this book is without peer. The practical meaning and impact of these findings for lawyers (whether corporate or activist), for regulators and policymakers, and for decision-makers in governmental bodies and private companies is immeasurable.
[en] Designing some long-lasting industrial assets necessitates an estimation of far future extremes. Extreme value estimation is commonly based on an application of the statistical extreme value theory (EVT), which requires that the studied variable is independent and identically distributed, or, at least, stationary. Climate variables exhibit different behaviors which potentially violate this assumption: Seasonality is generally the easiest to handle, and interannual variability is more complicated. Now, as far as temperature is concerned, an additional source of non-stationarity appears: the warming trend, whose interactions with interannual variability add another range of complexity. The approach proposed here is based on the construction of a standardized variable, whose extremes can be considered as stationary. This allows an application of EVT in better accordance with its assumptions. Recent works (Parey et al. in J Geophys Res Atmos 118:8285–8296, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1002/jgrd.50629 ) have shown that if optimized smooth trends in mean and standard deviation are removed from the temperature time series, then the extremes of the residuals can be considered as stationary. A statistical test has been designed to check this assumption. Here, the inference of high-temperature extremes from the extremes of this standardized variable and future mean and standard deviation projected at the desired time horizon, and given by climate model simulations, is further analyzed and justified.
[en] This leaflet lists the natural scientific facts of our climate and sheds a light on the controversies and uncertainties that are surrounding climate research. After an introduction on science, seven summarizing propositions on climate change are presented.
[nl]Deze brochure zet de natuurwetenschappelijke feiten over ons klimaat op een rijtje, en belicht de controverses en onzekerheden die in het klimaatonderzoek aan de orde zijn. Na een inleiding over wetenschap worden zeven samenvattende stellingen over klimaatverandering gepresenteerd.
[en] The Dutch Platform Communication on Climate Change organized a workshop with the title 'Communication Climate' in De Bilt, Netherlands, April 2006. The purpose of the workshop was to improve the communication on climate and climatic change. It caused the author to brainstorm about developments in the field of scientific information
[nl]Het (Nederlandse) Platform Communication on Climate Change (PCCC) organiseerde eind april 2006 in het KNMI in De Bilt een workshop onder de titel 'Communicatie Klimaat' met als doel het verbeteren van de communicatie over het klimaat en klimaatverandering. De opzet van deze workshop is aanleiding voor de auteur tot nadere overdenking van enige opvattingen over de ontwikkelingen in de wetenschapsvoorlichting
[en] Report of a meeting of NeVER (the Dutch Energy Law Association) on 8 February 2010 at the Dutch Competition Authority in The Hague, the Netherlands. During this meeting, 2 speakers, who had also attended COP15 in Copenhagen, held speeches about their experiences with informative and stimulating issues in Copenhagen. Does the climate issue benefit from a global approach? How did the negotiations proceed behind the scenes? Are there any positive results worth mentioning as opposed to the critical notes.
[nl]Verslag van een bijeenkomst van NeVER (Nederlandse Vereniging voor Energierecht) op 8 februari 2010 bij de NMa in Den Haag. Tijdens de bijeenkomst hebben 2 sprekers, die aanwezig waren bij de COP15 in Kopenhagen, voordrachten gehouden over hun ervaringen in Kopenhagen met wetenswaardige en prikkelende kwesties. Is het klimaatprobleem gebaat bij een mondiale aanpak? Hoe verliepen de onderhandelingen achter de schermen? Zijn naast de kritiek ook positieve resultaten te benoemen?.
[en] In a previous article in this magazine by Aalbers and Vollebergh it was concluded that good economic arguments are available for the precautionary principle in the climate control policy. That also pleads for a far-going Dutch climate control policy. It is the opinion of the author that the foundations of their arguments are not good enough. The above-mentioned authors reply with the one-page article 'De economie van Utopia' (The economy of Utopia) to Boot's article. 7 refs
[en] In equation (2) the term “P(L ∨ R, A5)” should be replaced with “P(L|R, A5)” and the term “P(R, A5) ∨ L” should be replaced with “P(R, A5|L)”. A typographical error replaced the symbol “|” with the symbol “∨”.
[en] In recent years, climate change has been one of the most complicated problems that human being has faced. Climate change adaptation (CCA) is considered to be an important component of risk management. In order to achieve adaptation, it is necessary to determine the indicators influencing adaptation in each community and this requires measurement and standard tools. The aim of this study is to determine and categorize the indicators of CCA. International electronic databases including Science Direct, Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar were investigated for only articles published in English language. In addition, Iranian databases including Irandoc, SID, and Magiran were investigated. There was no limitation on the methods of studies. Furthermore, snowball method was used for finding more articles while the ProQuest database was searched for related dissertations. The published documents from 1990 to November 2017 were gathered in this study. Out of 4439 publications initially search, 152 full texts were investigated. Finally, a total of 45 potentially relevant citations were included for full text review; in addition, fourteen other sources were investigated. Using snowball method, we found 24 other articles that were included in our final result. From the searches, 176 indicators were identified, while seven main domains were mentioned. Since in the articles, domains of adaptation are not in the form of a model, it is better to focus on this issue in the future and it seems that prioritizing and weighting domains in adaptation in different communities with different needs are an important issue.
[en] This paper discusses some of the elements that may characterise an efficient strategy to adapt to a changing climate. Such a strategy will have to reflect the long time horizon of, and the prevailing uncertainties about, climate change. An intuitively appealing approach therefore seems to be to enhance the flexibility and resilience of systems to react to and cope with climate shocks and extremes, as well as to improve information. In addition, in the case of quasi-irreversible investments with a long lifetime (e.g. infrastructure investments, development of coastal zones), precautionary adjustments may be called for to increase the robustness of structures, or to increase the rate of depreciation to allow for earlier replacement. Many of these measures may already have to be considered now, and could be worthwhile in their own right, independent of climate change considerations