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[en] Conclusions: ♦ SMR CHP has significant role in heat demand provision considering low emissions scenarios; ♦ SMR only electricity are not built; ♦ Only SMR CHP are ‘interesting’ to PLEXOS model; ♦ Due to high variability of heat demand (season but also during week) SMR CHP has rather low heat CF; ♦ SMR CHPs are superior even to Biomas CHP plants in this model.
[en] Reluctant acceptance is a concept that explores acceptance of nuclear energy framed in the context of climate change risk. It allows survey respondents an option to express objection to nuclear energy while also recognizing a reluctant acceptance of it in light of the competing threat of the imminent climate crisis. Reluctant acceptance has been examined by Pidgeon et al., Bickerstaff et al., Corner et al., Teräväinen et al., Visschers et al., Truelove and Greenberg and Kim et al., Bickerstaff et al. write, “our objective was not to simply gather citizen responses to an already circulating political reframing but rather to explore the dynamic discursive practices by which people made sense of and negotiated what for most was a new way of thinking about the two environmental problems”. The use of the reluctant acceptance framing is typically aimed at identifying respondents who have changed their position on nuclear power from oppose to accept because of the climate change crisis. Yet there is potential for the ‘reluctant acceptance’ concept to be widened to support a more robust, two-sided conversation on nuclear energy and climate change. Doing so may open new channels of communication with stakeholders on their perception of the role of nuclear power in climate change mitigation.
[en] This infographic shows that the energy consumption grows steadily in the world because of the increase of the population and because of the increase of energy consumption per capita. Energy consumption has been multiplied by a factor of 2.29 over 44 years. It is recalled that consequences of climate warming are real: an increase of 2 degrees instead of 1.5 means that 10 millions people more would be impacted by the consequent higher sea levels. Nuclear power, being abundant, reliable and carbon-free has a role to play for the integration of low-carbon solutions: hydrogen, electric cars, intermittent renewable energies... (A.C.)
[en] A Two years field study conducted at the Agronomic Research Station, University of Agriculture Faisalabad (Pakistan) to explore the impact of cutting management, seed rates and sowing technique on seed yield of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). The treatments comprised of three last cutting dates were 19 February 5 March and 19 March, three seeding rates were 10, 15 and 20 kg ha-1 and four sowing method i.e. line sowing in 30 , 45, 60 cm apart rows and broadcast, respectively. Earliest Last cutting (19 February) exhibited significantly higher number of raceme plant-1, 1000 seed weight, number of pods raceme-1 and final seed yield. Seed rate of 10 kg ha-1 had a significant impact on numbers of raceme m-2, pods raceme-1, seeds pod-1 and final seed yield for both years. Sowing method of using 60 cm had significant effects on raceme m-2, pods raceme-1, seeds pod-1, 1000 seed wt. and final seed yield in both years. It can be concluded that alfalfa forage crop left on 19 February with 10 kg ha-1 and 60 cm produced clearly higher seed yield. (author)
[en] Climate change was increased the frequency and magnitude of drought events in southwest China, particularly in winter and spring. However, the effects of drought and low temperature on physiological characteristics of the endangered Nouelia insignis whose natural regeneration is poor are not clear. Seedlings subjected to each drought treatment (achievement by withholding irrigation for 0, 5 and 9 d, respectively) were randomly divided into three groups and treated at 25, 5 and -5 °C for 1.5 h, respectively. Leaf relative water content, effective quantum yield of PSII-Y(II), photochemical quenching coefficient (qp) and electron transport rate (ETR) decreased significantly and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased significantly with the duration of withholding water. Pigment content, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, peroxidase (POD) activity and proline content increased significantly and maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) decreased significantly for seedlings subjected to severe drought. Y(II), qP and ETR decreased with the duration of withholding water for seedlings treated at 5 and -5°C. Fv/Fm, Y(II), qp and ETR decreased significantly, by 26.02%, 35.90%, 27.37% and 37.33%, respectively and MDA content increased significantly by 26.19% for seedlings subjected to -5°C. Fv/Fm of drought-stressed seedlings recovered to the original level after 2 d of recovery but that of freezing-treated seedlings did not recover which decreased with the duration of withholding water. In conclusion, photosynthetic activities and membrane of N. insignis were negatively affected by both severe drought and freezing temperature and the seedlings were more tolerant to drought than freezing temperature which might be due to the increased activities of antioxidant enzymes and accumulation of some osmolytes. Additionally, tolerance of N. insignis to low temperature was not enhanced by pretreatment of seedlings with drought and even diminished after being subjected to severe drought. Therefore, extreme drought and low temperature, particularly their combination, might be the important factors which limited natural regeneration of N. insignis. (author)
[en] The measurement of atmospheric aerosol particles is vital to protect air quality, human health, and for research on the effects of climate change. Although metrics such as PM10 and PM2.5 are currently used, the level of uncertainty in the aerosol metric is too high and traceability is insufficient. The AEROMET Project aims to implement improvements in the uncertainty in the measurements of particle mass, their size and their numerical concentration, and also in the characterization of their regulated chemical components. 22 European institutions participate in this project, including CIEMAT, which collaborates in the development of calibration procedures for mobility spectrometers, instruments which it has many years of experience.
[es]La medida de las partículas de aerosol atmosférico es vital para proteger la calidad del aire, la salud humana y para la investigación en los efectos del cambio climático. Aunque actualmente se utilicen métricas tales como PM10 y PM2.5, el nivel de incertidumbre en la métrica del aerosol es demasiado alto y la trazabilidad es insuficiente. El proyecto Aeromet tiene como objetivo implementar mejoras en la incertidumbre en las medidas de la masa de las partículas, su tamaño y su concentración numérica y también en la caracterización de sus componentes químicos regulados. En este proyecto, participan 22 instituciones europeas incluyendo al CIEMAT que colabora en el desarrollo de procedimientos de calibración para espectrómetros de movilidad, instrumentos en los que tiene muchos años de experiencia.
[en] The strategic guidelines of the Armenian Long-Term State Energy Policy are Energy and Environmental Security, as well as Energy and Budget Efficiency. Achieving these multi-vectored targets, improving the controllability of the Energy development process require the formation of the main components of the State Energy Policy. Thus, the proposed task is methodologically can be fragmented, since the main subject of the study is Environmental Security. Accordingly, the following provisions are formed: • Objective - Minimization of GHG emissions in mid-century long term perspective; • Criteria’s- Estimated Values of the appropriate factors on Ecology.
[en] For more than a year since June 2019 a struggle has been ongoing over the treatment of nuclear power in the context of the Sustainable Finance Initiative of the European Union and particularly in what is called taxonomy, a set of rules and categorizations to make sustainable finance implementable and operational. The debate of weather to include nuclear in the taxonomy as sustainable for its huge potential to mitigate climate change or to disregard it for alleged violation of the "Do no significant harm" (DNSH) principle with regard to other environmental policy objectives will probably continue till 2021, when the Joint Research Center of the European Union will give its evaluation on the issue and the European Commission will subsequently take its decision.
[en] The coastal zone is a very dynamic system which seeks to reach a state of dynamical equilibrium. In the last 5,5 ka, the mean sea level (MSL) presented a quasi-stable behavior, however due to climate change is on the rise. In order to analyze the influence of variations in substrate morphology between adjacent coastal sectors (Torres-Capão-Imbé), in the response to MSL in the medium and long term, future shorelines were projected for these scenarios. In addition to morphology, we investigated the existence of significant differences in these projections due to variations in shoreface bathymetry and sediment budget. The RanSTM (Shoreface Translation Model) model was used for that purpose. The three sectors presented different shoreline recession rates, primarily influenced by bathymetric changes, followed by sediment budget alterations. The influence of topography on recession was irrelevant. The sector 'Capão', with the steeper shoreface slope, presented smallest recession values, whereas the sector 'Imbé', with the lowest slope in the shoreface, presented highest recession values. By standardizing the profile length of the 'Imbé' sector, a decrease of around 30% in the recession values was obtained. The results show that variations in bathymetric profile morphology strongly influence coastal response under rising MSL, which may have relevant implications for local management and adaptation of coastal regions under climate change. (author)