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[en] Water resources managers and policy-makers need reliable projections of hydro-climatic conditions to develop sound water management policies. Global Climate Models (GCMs) are the primary basis for projecting how the climate may change over the coming decades. However, GCMs have low spatial resolution and inherent biases that limit their direct utility for understanding localized climate change impacts. These limitations are particularly pronounced in mountainous areas, where the terrain exhibits variations at scales much finer than the GCM grid spacing. The main goal of this study is to downscale precipitation and mean temperature simulations from an ensemble of 10 GCMs that participated in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase-5 (CMIP5) under two Representative Concentration Pathways – RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. The simulations were bias corrected using quantile mapping and downscaled to a 30 arc second spatial resolution (approximately 1 km) through using the delta method over the Indus River Basin and Pakistan for 2040-2070. The GCM processing was carried out using the Global Climate Data (GCD) package. The results show that for all seasons and most of the Indus River Basin (IRB) and Pakistan, future precipitation will be highly uncertain except UIB wherein mean annual precipitation is projected to increase by 8% under RCP 4.5 and 14% under RCP 8.5. However, the models are highly confident about increase in the temperature for this region. Relative to the baseline period (1960-1990), the annual mean temperature in the IRB is projected to increase by 2°Cunder RCP 4.5 and 2.6°C under RCP 8.5 for 2040-2070. (author)
[en] High night temperature periods have reduced rice crop yields in recent years in Colombia. One of the strategies used to address this situation has been selecting tolerant genotypes and identifying physiological variables that serve as selection criteria in breeding programs. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of two-night temperatures (24°C vs. 30°C) on the physiological and agronomic performance of seven rice genotypes (Fedearroz 50 (F50), Fedearroz 60 (F60), IR 1561, FLO 2764, LV447-1, CT19021 and LV1401). At milk growth stage, a group of six plants of each genotype was placed in a growth chamber between 18:00 and 24:00 h at 30°C for a period of eight days (stressed plants). Meanwhile, another group of rice plants sorted by genetic material was kept under normal growth conditions (24°C) in a shade house (Control Plants). Results showed that rice genotype F50 plants showed a lower rate of spikelet fertility compared to the other genotypes studied at 30°C (p≤0.05). Leaf photosynthetic pigments and chlorophyll α fluorescence parameters (Y(II), Y(NPQ), Y(NO) and Fv/Fm ratio) showed no differences between night temperatures; however, significance differences were found among genotypes. The above results suggest that Y(II), Y(NPQ), Y(NO) and Fv/Fm in rice plants at advanced phenological stages (milk stage) are not an effective tool to quantify the physiological behavior of rice genotypes under a high night temperature condition. (author)
[en] Ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO) is a member of the multi-copper oxidase family and plays an important role in plant growth and development. The functional characteristics and expression patterns of the AAO gene family were analyzed using the maize (Zea mays L.) B73 genomic mRNA and amino acid database. Bioinformatics analysis of the whole genome AAO gene of maize had identified 36 AAO gene members, and predictive analysis was performed on the chromosomal location, the mode and time of gene differentiation, protein physicochemical properties and secondary structure, gene structure, conserved elements, phylogenetic tree and expression patterns of these genes. The results showed that 36 ZmAAO were unevenly distributed on 10 chromosomes. The genes differentiation was dominated by fragment replication, and the differentiation time was about 3.3-25.75 million years. ZmAAO proteins were mostly basic proteins. The protein secondary structure is mainly composed of irregular curls. The analysis of gene structure and conserved motifs showed that there was no significant difference in the number of introns in ZmAAO genes, and the amino acid sequence was highly conserved. The phylogenetic trees can be divided into 4 subfamilies, in which maize, rice and sorghum has a large number of orthologous genes and close genetic relationships. The expression pattern analysis found that the expression level of ZmAAO was different in different tissues, which indicates that it functions differently. After high temperature stress, the expression level of ZmAAO gene was significantly different in different tissues, indicating that some ZmAAO genes respond to high temperature stress. These results provide a theoretical basis for studying the biological function of this gene family and breeding high temperature resistant varieties in the future. (author)
[en] Wastewater management is one of the biggest challenges in the world due to increase in population and industrialization. In Faisalabad (FSD), wastewater treatment is being done through Wastewater Stabilization Ponds (WSPs) at Chokera, which is one of the most economical methods of Wastewater Treatment (WWT). Various parameters were examined to check wastewater treatment efficiency of the ponds under diverse climatic conditions. These included Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), pH, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Turbidity, Copper, Total Solids (TS), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and Lead. Six locations which were selected for monitoring treatment efficiency, included inlet and outlet of treatment plant, influent of anaerobic ponds, effluent of anaerobic ponds, effluent of facultative ponds, and Pharang drain before and after blending with treated sewage. The testing was performed in two seasons (i.e. Winter 2015 and Summer 2016) in Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Lahore, Pakistan. BOD5 removal efficiency of the treatment plant was found 30.08% in winter and 51.74% in summer against designed value of 90% removal. Most of the parameters of the effluent were not meeting the Punjab Environmental Quality Standards (PEQS). The reasons of low efficiency are; variation in climatic conditions (i.e. less solar heat intensity, wind speed and ceased microbial activity in winter), lack of funds by government, increased population, mixing of industrial sewage with domestic sewage and less attention being paid to maintain the performance of Ponds. The study was carried out to assess and compare the efficiency of treatment plant with PEQS in two climatic conditions. (author)
[en] Due to the COVID-19 outbreak, several planned training missions to the Himalayan and Andes region on the use of cosmic-ray neutron sensor technology were changed to a novel online teaching format, as part of the interregional project INT5156 on Building Capacity and Generating Evidence for Climate Change Impacts on Soil, Sediments and Water Resources in Mountainous Regions. In total 15 scientists from Bolivia, Chile, Peru and Ecuador participated on 17-19 August 2020, and 25 scientists from China, Nepal, Pakistan and Afghanistan participated on 13-15 October 2020. They learned how to install, calibrate and use the innovative cosmic-ray neutron sensor technology for better managing water resources in highlands.
[en] The coffee industry generates approximately US $ 100 billion per year. But with climate change and the changing weather patterns it produces, the conditions that were once suitable for coffee plants are deteriorating in many traditional growing areas, and the incidence of coffee leaf rust — a disease that kills coffee trees — is on the rise. The IAEA, in partnership with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), has been working with national experts to alleviate the stress of coffee leaf rust on coffee trees using nuclear techniques. A first for the IAEA, experts are being trained to use plant breeding techniques to develop coffee varieties that are resistant to the fungus that causes coffee leaf rust. This training is part of a five-year coordinated research project where scientists from six countries have been conducting research on disease resistant coffee plant varieties.
[en] With global climate change, water availability will be a problem for agriculture and food production. Agriculture production consumes more than 70 percent of the world’s water resources, mainly for irrigation. With water use efficiency less than 50%, the challenge is to ensure adequate agricultural production while achieving maximum efficiency of irrigation water use. Climate-smart irrigation practices, including effective soil moisture monitoring, can help to meet this challenge and ensure longer water availability when drought is hitting the farmlands.
[en] This parliamentary report first recalls the objectives of the French energy policy as they are defined in a decree related to a preliminary dialogue for the PPE and the low-carbon strategy, in terms of mandatory energy savings, and regarding the carbon budget specific to the international transport and the French carbon print. Then, it discusses measures which have been already applied, are about to be applied or foreseen in favour of climate, and notably regarding the shutting down of coal-fired plants, to housing energy performance. The next parts present and comment legal and regulatory measures related to environmental assessment, to the struggle against the fraud on energy saving certificates, to the adaptation of the law to the case of overseas territories, to energy regulation, and to gas and electric power sales regulated prices.
[en] This publication presents the results of two surveys performed among a representative sample of French people, and among a representative sample of people living at the vicinity of wind farms. These surveys addressed various issues: global warming and energy transition (concern, perception of challenges, confidence in the different energies), and the perception of wind energy (image of the wind energy, perception of different possible benefits, compared perception of a solar array field, a wind farm and a nuclear site). A focus on neighbours of wind turbines is proposed: general feeling, influence of the length of stay.
[fr]La 'Loi de transition energetique pour la croissance verte' promulguee le 18 aout 2015 instaure des objectifs precis a atteindre pour la France: reduire les emissions de gaz a effet de serre de 40% entre 1990 et 2030, mais aussi porter la part des energies renouvelables dans la consommation finale brute d'energie a 23% en 2020 et 32% en 2030. Dans ce contexte, France energie eolienne a sollicite Harris Interactive une premiere fois il y a deux ans afin d'interroger les Francais sur l'image de l'energie eolienne et sur sa place au coeur de ce processus de transition energetique. Cette enquete vise a faire un premier point d'avancement, deux ans apres: comment l'image de l'energie eolienne a-t-elle evolue, aupres du grand public mais aussi des riverains? Ce sujet etant susceptible de toucher le quotidien de certains Francais, comment est percue l'installation d'une eolienne sur le territoire de vie et quelles evolutions percoit-on ces dernieres annees? Quels avantages sont identifies et eventuellement quelles sont limites evoquees par le grand public mais egalement par les riverains d'eoliennes?
[en] Global climate change has a major impact on the availability of water resources for agricultural production. Sustainable agricultural productivity to ensure food security requires good agricultural water management. Soil moisture is an important variable in irrigation management, hydrological modelling, groundwater recharge, flood and drought forecasting. Cosmic Ray Neutron Sensors (CRNS) have the capability to estimate field-scale soil moisture (SM) in large areas up to 20 to 30 ha and has demonstrated its ability to support agricultural water management, hydrology studies and land surface modelling. However, measurement of soil moisture at a global or regional scale can only be achieved from satellite remote sensing. Recently, active microwave remote sensing Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imaging has emerged as an effective tool to estimate surface soil moisture. The Sentinel-1 (SAR) satellite shows great potential for high spatial resolution soil moisture monitoring and for producing soil moisture maps. CRNS technology can be used for calibration and validation remote sensing imagery predictions at field and area-wide level.