Results 1 - 10 of 1919
Results 1 - 10 of 1919. Search took: 0.021 seconds
|Sort by: date | relevance|
[en] There is increasing evidence to suggest that adaptation to the inevitable is as relevant to climate change policymaking as mitigation efforts. Both mitigation and adaptation, as well as the unavoidable damage occurring both now and that is predicted to occur, all involve costs at the expense of diverse climate change victims. The allocation of responsibilities - implicit in terms of the burden-sharing mechanisms that currently exist in public and private governance - demands recourse under liability law, especially as it has become clear that most companies will only start reducing emissions if verifiable costs of the economic consequences of climate change, including the likelihood of liability, outweigh the costs of taking precautionary measures. This vitally important book asks: Can the precautionary principle make uncertainty judiciable in the context of liability for the consequences of climate change, and, if so, to what extent? Drawing on the full range of pertinent existing literature and case law, the author examines the precautionary principle both in terms of its content and application and in the context of liability law. She analyses the indirect means offered by existing legislation being used by environmental groups and affected individuals before the courts to challenge both companies and regulators as responsible agents of climate change damage. In the process of responding to its fundamental question, the analysis explores such further questions as the following: (a) What is the role of the precautionary principle in resolving uncertainty in scientific risk assessment when faced with inconclusive evidence, and how does it affect decision-making, particularly in the regulatory choices concerning climate change? To this end, what is the concrete content of the precautionary principle?; (b) How does liability law generally handle scientific uncertainty? What different types of liability exist, and how are they equipped to handle a climate change liability claim?; (c) What type of liability is best suited for precautionary measures or a lack thereof? Can the application of the precautionary principle make a difference to the outcomes of climate change liability claims? In order to draw conclusions concerning the legal uncertainties posed by climate change, the author draws examples from national legislations representative of the various legal systems, as well as from existing treaties. General rules and obligations relevant to climate change liability are examined, and a selection of actual legal cases from around the world concerning climate change, be it actual liability claims or litigation indirectly relevant to a claim, is also presented. As an overview of the different legal challenges created by climate change liability, this book is without peer. The practical meaning and impact of these findings for lawyers (whether corporate or activist), for regulators and policymakers, and for decision-makers in governmental bodies and private companies is immeasurable.
[en] This special report is the third in a series of reports aimed at explaining and assessing our current understanding of the more complex and controversial aspect of climate change science. It describes recent results from climate change experiments undertaken with the first version of the Canadian coupled climate model, including a discussion of the credibility and limitations of the results. The results are also compared to those reported by other climate modelling groups. The report concludes with a brief review of current and future developments in Canadian climate modelling research. The results of modelling studies strongly suggest that the probability of extensive climate change is both real and imminent. They suggest that the rate and magnitude of warming over the next century is likely to be in the upper range of previous expectations, if not higher. While modelling studies provide approximations and not precise forecasts of future conditions, if these approximations are close to the mark, as there is every reason to believe that they are, both natural ecosystems and human societies will have difficulty adapting to a rate of climatic change that is virtually without precedent. Clearly, the related risks are significant, and the need for urgent action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through the Kyoto Protocol and other relevant mechanisms, is long overdue. 12 refs., 20 figs
[en] Opinions of the Interim Director of the Global Environment Program of Cornell University are presented. The focus is on obstacles to the implementation by policymakers of actions needed to address climate change. A major obstacle preventing action is stated to be the uncertainties involved in climate predictions. It is proposed that rapid, comprehensive action is required to meet the challenges posed by climate predictions, regardless of the inherent uncertainties. Aspects of future climate which are relatively certain are discussed, including continued greenhouse effects for the next several decades, a greater warming effect at higher altitudes, more warming in the winter, and linkage of all other aspects of climate to temperature changes. Aspects of climatic change which pose particular problems regarding predictability are also discussed
[en] The contents of this book are research on the actual condition of TPM and energy innovation, research on the actual condition of 2002 facility management and 2002 KEMI, TPM and energy innovation issue, 2002 energy innovation issue like preparation for coming of the climatic change convention, strategy of TPM and energy innovation. It introduces best practice such as AMLCD operation division of Sam sung Electronics co., Ltd and air conditioner operation division in DA operation headquarters of LG Electronics, co., Ltd and prospect of TPM and energy innovation.
[en] The hearing addressed science concerning global climate change and the lingering uncertainty regarding the rate and magnitude of projected climate change. Statements of government, industry and scientific personnel are included along with documents submitted for the record
[en] Drought is the failure of expected rain which leads to various effects in physical environment and human activities. Droughts are classified into three types namely; meteorological drought, agricultural and hydrological. Meteorological occurs when precipitation is below expectation, hydrological drought is experienced when water resources used for various activities reach levels when they become insufficient for those purposes. On the other hand agricultural drought occurs when when water supply for agriculture gets scarce and can defined as a moisture deficit that they cause un tolerable water stress during the growing season.In Kenya desertification is characterized by high temperatures that ranges between 14-31 degrees centigrade, with shallow soils of poor water holding capacity, the vegetation consists of variety of grasses, bushes and woodlands. Evergreen forest occurs along the major rivers such as Tana. Agricultural activities are usually concentrated in areas which are relatively wet like the highlands and flood plains with flood plains of permanent and seasonal seasonal rivers, surface storage areas and areas of seasonally -recharged shallow groundwater
[en] This series of slides shows that the warming of the climate system is unequivocal through multiple lines of evidence for changes (snow cover, arctic sea ice extent, sea level, and ocean heat content), and that the concentration of greenhouse gases due to human activities is increasing. It is extremely likely that human influence has been the dominant cause of the observed warming since the mid-century. More reliable predictions of climate requires high performance computing for increased spatial and time resolutions as well as for data collect and storage
[en] Agricultural activities involves cultivation of crops and keeping of livestock which have great impact on environment. Although the level of agricultural production is dependent on capital input, human resources and soils climate is the overriding factor. Climate determines the types of crops that can grow in certain geographical areas while weather elements such as light, rainfall and temperatures have direct effect on physiological processes such as photosynthesis, leave expansion plant growth and development. Weather also controls the spread of fugal diseases, insect pests and weeds which affect growth. The anticipated climate change due to greenhouse gas-induced global warming is expected to alter temporal and spatial patterns of rainfall, temperature, humidity, radiation, wind etc. Increase in air and land surface temperatures could lead to increase in evapotranspiration which could alter soil moisture condition of most agricultural lands
[en] The workshop paid a lot of attention to the ice climatology and modelling interrelating the different parts of the hydrological and meteorological problems. A special target of interest was concerned to comparisons between various models. The first session dealt with the Baltic Sea Ice Data Banks. The second session was concerning main results of Baltic Sea ice regime. The third session dealt with ice regime modelling and fourth about climate change and ice regime