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[en] Paper deals with climate change in Estonia by main trends in mean air temperature. Three characteristics are given. In table 1 the ice-break (mean in northen Estonia) dates and standard deviation are presented for 33-34 year periods. The two last columns show the earliest and the latest date of ice-break in given period. In the table 2 the average air temperature of April-July in Tallinn is given in the same system. The time-series is reconstructed on observed air temperature combined with calculated from rye harvest dates air temperature. Table 3 presents mean winter (December-March) air temperature in Tallinn. In this case the average of periods before instrumental observations is estimated from break-off dates in Tallinn Port. The main conclusion is that general warming in this century is accelerating (author). 3 tabs
[en] The observations of Tartu-Toravere actinometrical station, performed during the last forty years, show that the transparancy of the earth atmosphere has dec reased by 3.7%, the annual incoming direct solar radiation, by 14.4% and the tot al solar radiation, by 6.3%. The mean annual amount of lower clouds has increase d by 0.5 tenths, but during summer months, by more than one tenth. In spring the melting of the permanent snow cover starts 25 days earlier and the mean surface albedo of the spring months has decreased by 28%. During the last 35 years the annual amount of precipitation has increased from 526 mm to 652 mm, but during t he spring months temperature has increased by 0.650C, but in the spring time, b y 2.50C. As a result, spring comes earlier, it is drier and agrometeorological conditions for crop growth in spring have become worse. It seems to be clear tha t the climate of Estonia is really changing probably as a result of air pollutio n. (author)
[en] The 43rd Annual meeting of the Argentine Association of Nuclear Technology was organized by the AATN (Asociacion Argentina de Tecnologia Nuclear) in Buenos Aires, Argentina, between 21 and 25 November of 2016. In this event 188 papers in 28 Sessions, with 23 Plenary Conferences and 3 Roundtables were presented.
[es]La 43a. Reunion anual de la Asociacion Argentina de Tecnologia Nuclear ha sido organizada por la AATN (Asociacion Argentina de Tecnologia Nuclear) en Buenos Aires, Argentina, entre el 21 y 25 de noviembre de 2016. En este evento fueron presentados 188 trabajos en 28 Sesiones. Ademas se llevaron a cabo 23 Conferencias Plenarias y 3 Mesas Redondas.
[en] Relations between the present weather warming and the energy consumption in Estonia are discussed. As a key of the change of the Estonia n climate the mean winter temperatures are presented by a homogeneous Tallinn time-series 1757-1990. The air temperature trend for winter months over that period was 2 oC. Now, in 20-30 years time we are expecting the same rate. The energy production is characterized by the years 1935, 1975 and 1990. Table 1 shows that there have been fundamental changes in the last half of the century. Fundamental changes must be undertaken in the nearest future to improve the efficiency of both the consumption and the production of energy. (author). tab
[en] As a year has half passed by now, we might look back and consider the frailty of human nature. Besides natural and human made hazards and disasters, the continuous pressure of food insecurity is heightened by the more and more evident effects of climate variability and change. Amongst others, a change in climate would have an effect on the world's vegetation zones. An increase in temperature would affect species composition and thus affect ecosystems. Up to two thirds of the world's forests would undergo major changes, deserts would become hotter, and desertification would extend and become harder to reverse. A change in the boundaries between grassland, forest and shrublands would occur. This change in vegetation zones could cause famine in arid areas such as Africa that depend on a certain type of crop. This could cause an increased population pressure on urban and peri-urban zones due to the exodus from afflicted arid rural regions. The range of pests could also change if the vegetation changed. This could bring about an increase in disease levels. Global climate change has already had observable effects on the environment. Temperatures are rising, glaciers have shrunk, ice on rivers and lakes is breaking up earlier, plant and animal ranges have shifted, trees are flowering sooner, landscapes are changing also due to massive land erosion, there is an increased risk of drought, fire and floods, stronger storms cause increased storm damage and more heat-related spreads of diseases and pests put (agro-)biodiversity at risk and cause economic losses. Consequently, the concern about sustainable food security is a red thread leading through this issue of our Newsletter. In this issue, you will find some of our modest contributions to consolidate food security under the pressure of climate change.
[en] The US approach to both nuclear energy and climate change can be summarized in two words: risk management. Unpacking the layers of risk management, however, requires understanding the characteristics of the US electricity market and the influences that federal and state governments have on that market. The fi rst set of issues to understand is that electric utilities in the USA are relatively risk averse, increasingly subject to competition, acutely aware of their accountability to stock investors and relatively lacking in the large capital needed to build nuclear power plants. Chief executive officers (CEOs) of utilities know that their companies' long term financial futures ride on the decisions that they make today about what types of power plants to build because of the plants' decades long lifetimes. John Rowe, CEO of Exelon, the US based utility with the largest number of nuclear reactors, expressed this point directly: 'cost is fundamental'. Many other CEOs are receptive to countering climate change, but not at the risk of hurting the US economy. This is the prevailing perception among many US business leaders. In contrast, some experts have argued that on balance such efforts could help the economy and would mitigate catastrophic climate change effects. The bottom line is that the USA can choose to pay in the near term or delay longer - with potentially graver consequences - to address climate change
[en] In order to mitigate the climate change we need to proceed on a society-wide deep decarbonization of heating, power and transportation as fast as possible. This paper presents a scenario on constructing a fleet of small, high-temperature nuclear reactors to provide district heating, power and hydrogen through electrolysis to achieve a near-complete decarbonization of the energy system at the time-scale required. The scope of the study covers the Helsinki Metropolitan area with a projected population of around 1.5 million people by 2050. The projected end energy use is 8 TWh heating, 12 TWh electricity and 4 TWh of hydrogen, used either as a direct fuel for fuel-cell vehicles or as feedstock for synfuels. Using combined heat and power (CHP) and high temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), the significant seasonal variations in energy demand of the northern Helsinki region can be met while still using the nuclear reactors at high capacity of around 90 %. (author).
[en] This leaflet lists the natural scientific facts of our climate and sheds a light on the controversies and uncertainties that are surrounding climate research. After an introduction on science, seven summarizing propositions on climate change are presented.
[nl]Deze brochure zet de natuurwetenschappelijke feiten over ons klimaat op een rijtje, en belicht de controverses en onzekerheden die in het klimaatonderzoek aan de orde zijn. Na een inleiding over wetenschap worden zeven samenvattende stellingen over klimaatverandering gepresenteerd.
[en] The 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is one of a series of recent agreements through which countries around the world are banding together to meet the challenge of altering the global climate. In 1997, in respond to the growing public pressure and questions on climate change governments adopted the Kyoto Protocol. The 5th Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP5 UNFCCC) was a rather technical and complex conference which focused in particular on the development of a detailed framework for the application of ''flexible mechanisms'' as laid down in the Kyoto Protocol. Young Generation Network as a part of the International Nuclear Forum at COP5 took part in the debate saying that nuclear is the part of the solution. (author)