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[en] Highlights: • Development of indices to identify and compare urban FEW nexus. • Monitoring, planning and managing the urbanization process in FEW nexus sectors. • Operationalization and integration of equity in the FEW nexus analysis. • Decision support for urban institutions for the development of political measures. - Abstract: Current global developments put increasing ecological, economic and social pressures on urban systems. The density of urban areas concentrates these pressures especially on food, energy and water (i.e., the FEW nexus) resources as if in a ‘burning glass’. The ability to confront these challenges significantly depends on the resilience of an urban area, which is to a large degree managed by institutions with the objective of protecting social cohesion and minimizing ecological pressure. Urbanization and climate change, however, strain social cohesion by exacerbating social vulnerabilities and disproportionately affecting those already marginalized. Justice and equity are thus essential preconditions for the development of resilient urban concepts and must be considered in a comprehensive nexus management approach. For this purpose, two indices are developed based on the UN-Habitat City Prosperity Index, with a specific focus on integrating the nexus-relevant indices (i.e., the infrastructure development index and the environmental sustainability index) with a weighted equity index. The World and Region Prosperity City Index (WCPI, RCPI5) and the Nexus City Index (NXI) enable decision makers to more readily compare global and local city resiliences without reducing the underlying complexity of the analyzed FEW system.
[en] Understanding how to sustain cooperation in the climate change global dilemma is crucial to mitigate its harmful consequences. Damages from climate change typically occur after long delays and can take the form of more frequent realizations of extreme and random events. These features generate a decoupling between emissions and their damages, which we study through a laboratory experiment. We find that some decision-makers respond to global emissions, as expected, while others respond to realized damages also when emissions are observable. On balance, the presence of delayed/stochastic consequences did not impair cooperation. However, we observed a worrisome increasing trend of emissions when damages hit with delay.
[en] Highlights: • Analyze city membership in 18 adaptation networks that support local adaptation efforts. • Large cities with high concern for climate change are the most active participants in adaptation networks. • Cities with similar levels of social vulnerability tend to participate in the same networks. • Global and regional networks have different patterns of membership. • Networks may not distribute resources to cities that most need support or are unlikely to otherwise take action. - Abstract: By sharing best practices and lessons learned among member cities, professional and learning networks have become prominent actors in supporting and shaping local climate change adaptation. I analyze the membership of 18 highly visible adaptation learning networks to determine what cities participate and if networks attract similar cities. I find that the formation of adaptation networks is driven by large, high-capacity cities. Adaptation networks include members of diverse sizes and planning capacity, however, cities with similar levels of social vulnerability and concern with climate change tend to participate in the same networks. Global and regional networks have different patterns of membership. These patterns of membership have important implications for diffusing climate change adaptation between cities.
[en] Highlights: • The metaphor of ‘network’ encourages research practices that treat individuals, places and knowledges as data points . • There is a need for a new metaphor that encourages transdisciplinary practices to be responsive to difference. • The metaphor of ‘meshwork’ sensitizes researchers to the emergent properties of transdisciplinary encounters. • Knowing alongly means to learn to tell people’s and place’s stories and learn to inherit the relations that compose them. - Abstract: Transdisciplinary research has been promoted as a means of bringing together certified experts and stakeholders to produce knowledge that is policy-relevant, salient, credible, and legitimate to inform decision-making about complex problems. In this article I discuss the limitations of using the ‘network’ metaphor in transdisciplinary research practice and propose the use of a different metaphor to make transdisciplinary research encounters more attuned to difference. This research is informed by Tim Ingold’s use of ‘meshwork’ as a metaphor for how life is lived along lines of becoming: emergent, indeterminate, contingent, historical, narrative. In this paper, my objective is to explain and illustrate by way of an example of a transdisciplinary climate change adaptation project the need for a new metaphor to convey the open-endedness of transdisciplinary research where subject positions are not conceived in advance of a research encounter, such as in the ‘network’ metaphor, but erupt in the interstices of research methods, objectives and desired outcomes. The meshwork metaphor implies that transdisciplinarity should be reframed as a practice of attunement to difference, becoming skilled in paying attention, witnessing, and responding to differences.
[en] Highlights: • Climate policies are shaped by climate policy paradigms (CPPs), a set of prevailing ideas and strategies. • Differentiated climate policy progress can be observed in Bangladesh and Nepal. • Competing CPPs currently exist in two countries that create diversified policy responses. • ‘Layering’ of different CPPs can be attributed to various drivers in the two LDCs. • Knowledge on CPPs can support policy actors to design effective future climate policies. - Abstract: The aim of this article is to explain and compare the changes in climate policy paradigms (CPPs) of Bangladesh and Nepal. Climate policies are shaped by the underlying CPPs that refer to a dominant set of prevailing and institutionalized ideas and strategies to reduce the impacts of climate change. We focus the analysis on the timeframe between 1997 and 2016, using policy documents (n = 46) and semi-structured interviews (n = 43) with key policy actors. We find that in both countries several CPPs have emerged: disaster risk reduction, climate change adaptation, mainstreaming, and localized action for adaptation. In Bangladesh, specific policy goals and instruments for each CPP have emerged, whereas in Nepal the government has been struggling to develop specific policy instruments to implement the paradigms. We conclude that competing CPPs currently exist which creates diversified policy responses to climate change impacts in both countries. This ‘layering’ of different CPPs can be attributed to drivers such as unstable political situation, lack of financial support, influence of national and international non-governmental organizations and global policy frameworks. The findings in our study are relevant to further discussions on how to design future climate policy responses to adapt to climate change.
[en] Due to few comparative studies, explanations for differences in adaptation mainstreaming between sectors remain widely unclear. The article analyzes how adaptation mainstreaming was approached during the development of the Swiss National Adaptation Strategy and to what extent adaptation objectives were mainstreamed into sectoral policies. The analysis reveals that in Switzerland, adaptation objectives are integrated more substantially into sectoral policies when they overlap with primary sectoral objectives but generally backing by organizational and procedural measures is lacking. The results suggest a similar pattern for adaptation mainstreaming as for EPI: While policy frameworks such as strategies are adopted rather easily, a move towards more binding measures that interfere with sectoral policy-making and the existing institutional structure is much more challenging. In contrast to environmental concerns, climate change impacts are expected to be considered more substantially resulting in a more substantive mainstreaming of adaptation objectives and measures on a sectoral level. As these measures might negatively affect other sectors, the main challenge of adaptation mainstreaming is to consistently address the cross-cutting nature of adaption and to establish procedures to coordinate sectoral measures in order to avoid such negative externalities.
[en] Highlights: • Calls for meta-paradigmatic studies of climate change adaptation in small islands. • Catalogues an earlier study’s contributions to adaptation scholarship and theory-building. • Presents adaptation lessons and insights for national governments and other actors. - Abstract: This paper describes how an earlier study’s novel, meta-paradigmatic approach was used to answer two research questions of international significance: (1) How are small island developing states (SIDS) adapting to climate change at the national level? and (2) What are the factors that affect adaptation at the national level in SIDS? As acknowledged in the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the 2015 Paris Climate Agreement, SIDS are distinct from other developing countries. They are 58 countries spread across three main geographic regions that are disproportionately vulnerable to the impacts of climate change; they require special attention and support from the international community. Previous studies using a single theory to understand adaptation in SIDS were limited and unable to fully grapple with the totality, enormity and complexity of the climate challenge. This paper argues for capitalising on the value of the distinctiveness of different theories and approaches without having to integrate them into one paradigm. It further catalogues the earlier study’s contributions to climate change adaptation scholarship and theory-building. It does not seek to rationalise the earlier study or justify any theoretical perspective. Instead, it seeks to serve as an incubator for new thinking on investigating climate adaptation in complex geographies. Additionally, it teases out lessons and insights for national governments and other actors that are designing and implementing climate change adaptation policies and programs in disproportionately vulnerable countries in the Global South.
[en] Paleoclimatic reconstructions have used different proxies as climate indicators. In this context, palynomorphs play a crucial role for making inferences about past climate changes because of their presence and distribution during the geologic history in almost all types of environments. Argentina has a wide latitudinal range in South America, with diverse cretaceous units yielding palynomorphs that represent different climatic conditions. The Cretaceous was a time when climate conditions showed some special variations. Different theories about the climate conditions at this time were postulated. The main aim of this contribution is to understand climate trends during the Cretaceous, based on the quantitative analysis of selected pollen and spores, considered as climate indicators, from different geological units in Argentina. The evaluation of the palynofloras has been undertaken mainly by reviewing published sources from cretaceous basins but also with our own unpublished data. The climatic trend during the Cretaceous showed that the Early Cretaceous is marked by aridity episodes with high values of Classopollis and Gnetales. In contrast, the Late Cretaceous showed warmer and more humid conditions indicated by increasing values of free-sporing plants (especially Bryophytes and ferns) and palm pollen grains, and the decrease until their absence of the aridity indicators.
[es]Las reconstrucciones paleoclimáticas se han llevado a cabo haciendo uso de diferentes proxies como indicadores climáticos. Teniendo en cuenta este contexto, los palinomorfos poseen un papel fundamental en el momento de realizar inferencias paleoclimáticas debido a su abundancia y distribución en diferentes unidades geológicas que abarcan prácticamente todo tipo de ambientes. Argentina tiene una gran amplitud latitudinal en Sudamérica, con diversas formaciones geológicas cretácicas que poseen registros palinológicos. Estos representan diferentes condiciones climáticas. El Cretácico fue un período en el que se han registrado variaciones climáticas. El objetivo principal de este trabajo es conocer las tendencias climáticas del Cretácico en Argentina, basándose en el análisis cuantitativo de miosporas consideradas indicadoras de ciertas condiciones climáticas, de difere tes unidades geológicas de Argentina. La evaluación de las palinofloras ha sido abordada desde la bibliografía previa publicada, así como en datos propios sin publicar. La tendencia paleoclimática durante el Cretácico muestra que el Cretácico Temprano estuvo marcado por episodios de aridez, con altos valores de Classopollis y Gnetales. Por otra parte, el Cretácico Tardío muestra condiciones de calor y mayor humedad indicadas por los valores altos de plantas de esporas libres (especialmente Briofitas y helechos) y granos de polen de palmeras, y la disminución hasta la ausencia de los indicadores de aridez.
[en] We have analysed the diversity of the late Paleozoic palynoflora of the Paraná (Brazil and Uruguay), Parnaíba and Amazon (Brazil) basins using already published data. In order to do this the total diversity and diversity with range-through approach curves were built up, as well as Foote’s appearance and disappearance rates at the generic level. These parameters were also obtained separately for each group of sporomorphs. An important increase in diversity in the Asselian and Sakmarian and a posterior decrease until the Lopingian were observed. The values of the appearance rates were higher than those of disappearance and they peaked in the Asselian, while the highest disappearances took place in the Capitanian and, to a lesser extent, in the Sakmarian. On the other hand, spores and pollen grains show some differences in the general diversity trend. However, there are differences in the patterns of appearance and disappearance. Despite possible biases, mainly related to the collecting effort, the diversity curves and appearance and disappearance rates obtained are congruent with the climatic phases proposed for this region in these periods. The increase in the number of palynomorph genera is associated to the early Permian climatic amelioration whilst a decrease in diversity is related to the beginning of an arid phase.
[es]Se analizó la diversidad de la palinoflora correspondiente a estratos del Paleozoico superior de las cuencas de Paraná (Brasil y Uruguay), Parnaíba y Amazonas (Brasil), utilizando datos previamente publicados. Se elaboraron curvas de diversidad total y diversidad calculadas mediante el método range-through y se calcularon los índices de aparición y desaparición de los diferentes géneros utilizando como herramienta el índice de Foote. También se analizaron esos parámetros en diferentes grupos de esporomorfos por separado. Se observó un aumento importante de la diversidad en el Asseliano y Sakmariano y una posterior disminución gradual hasta el Lopingiano. Los valores de los índices de aparición fueron más importantes que los de desaparición y se dieron en el Asseliano, mientras que las mayores desapariciones se observaron en el Capitaniano y en menor medida en el Sakmariano. Por otra parte, las esporas y los granos de polen presentan algunas diferencias en la tendencia general de diversidad. Sin embargo, se aprecian diferencias en los patrones de parición y desaparición. A pesar de los posibles sesgos, fundamentalmente relacionados con el esfuerzo de colecta, existe cierta coherencia entre la diversidad, los índices de apariciones y desapariciones y las fases climáticas propuestas para esa edad en la región. El cambio hacia un clima más templado ocurrido en el Pérmico inferior estaría asociado a un aumento en el número de géneros de palinomorfos mientras que el comienzo de una fase más árida estaría relacionado a una disminución en la diversidad.
[en] Oncological hyperthermia is a treatment to selectively kill cancer cells by directly applying heat to cancer cells or indirectly demage cancer cells. One of the most side effects of treatment is burn that can appear on the skin. In areas with irregularities such as the umbilicus, the patient feels a sense of hot and treatment may be discontinued. Therefore, in order toeliminate the irregularities of these areas, compensators are manufactured and measured to decrease in temperature. The temperature of the four sites (umbilicus, near the umbilicus, 5 cm below the umbilicus, back) was measured five times around the umbilicus in patients who were treated at oncological hyperthermia treatment device (EHY-2000, Oncotherm Kft, Hungary). The temperature sensor (TM-100, Oncotherm Kft, Hungary) was attached to four sites and the changes were observed at 5, 15, 25, 35, and 50 minutes after treatment. Compensators of three materials were used(Vaseline, Bolus, Dental resin). The data measured five times were compared for each compensator. he temperature change when the compensator was not used increase from 34.65 degrees to 42.9 degrees on average. The near umbilicus was changed from 32.20 degrees to 37.00 degrees, and the 5 cm below the umbilicus was changed from 31.90 to 34.41 degrees. When the compensator material was inserted into the umbilicus, the temperature change was measured as 5.42 degrees for bolus, 6.55 degrees for vaseline, and 6.83 degrees for resin. Using the compensator in the region where the irregularities such as the umbilicus, the heat sensation could be reduced. the use of a resin that can be customized not only lowers the temperature but also significantly reduces the feeling of the patient. It will be possible to reduce the heat sensation in the treatment and to treat it in a more comfortable condition