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[en] The paper discusses temporal changes in the configuration of vertical climatic belts in the Tatra Mountains as a result of current climate change. Meteorological stations are scarce in the Tatra Mountains; therefore, we modelled decadal air temperatures using existing data from 20 meteorological stations and the relationship between air temperature and altitude. Air temperature was modelled separately for northern and southern slopes and for convex and concave landforms. Decadal air temperatures were additionally used to delineate five climatic belts previously distinguished by Hess on the basis of threshold values of annual air temperature. The spatial extent and location of the borderline isotherms of 6, 4, 2, 0, and − 2 °C for four decades, including 1951–1960, 1981–1990, 1991–2000, and 2001–2010, were compared.Significant warming in the Tatra Mountains, uniform in the vertical profile, started at the beginning of the 1980s and led to clear changes in the extent and location of the vertical climatic belts delineated on the basis of annual air temperature. The uphill shift of the borderline isotherms was more prominent on southern than on northern slopes. The highest rate of changes in the extent of the climatic belts was found above the isotherm of 0 °C (moderately cold and cold belts). The cold belt dramatically diminished in extent over the research period.
[en] As part of a research project in the Máster en Innovación Tecnológica en Edificación (UPM), an adaption of a simple building to a new location was carried out, coherently using advanced passive systems. The case study was the Farnsworth House, designed by L. Mies van der Rohe and built between 1945 and 1951. The building is a volume of pure forms, with a steel structure closed with a glass façade, without natural ventilation except for the main door. Despite being an icon of the international movement, the Farnsworth House is a problematic building in what comes to its relationship with climate. The location proposed is a plot 234 meters above sea level, in the municipality of Porto Nacional, Tocantins, Brazil. The type of climate in this area is Tropical Dry, according to the Köppen classification.   The site is relatively flat; It is located east of the Tocantins River, with an important plant mass on its west side. This condition generates high levels of humidity despite being a theoretically dry site. All these conditions, as well as the annual climatic data, are decisive for the design and adaptation to the new location. Once the climate was studied it could be noted that ventilation allowed counteracting both the high temperatures and the humidity of the area, providing a greater integral feeling of well-being. In addition, a strategy to guarantee that high external temperatures did not reach the interior of the building seemed necessary, requiring shadow elements to avoid thermal gains -but still provide indirect natural lighting. At the same time, it seemed important to use materials with high thermal inertia and to modify the roofs, since the site is one with a large rainy season Simulations with the Star CCM+ software were performed to evaluate the building, both in its current state and under the proposed design. A drastic improvement in air movement could be verified, proving the suitability of the strategies implemented for adequate natural ventilation. In addition, the solar path was simulated, verifying the operation of the designed eaves and the direct incidence of sunlight inside the building. This research shows that architecture must adapt to a specific latitude and to a particular site, with its topography, vegetation and water masses, its materials and its surroundings. Simple designs are not easily adaptable to any environment, so architects must take into account all the aspects around them. Several digital tools exist nowadays that allow verifying the adequacy of every environmental adaptation, making it possible to determine, before construction, if the proposed constructive solution really solves the identified problem
[en] The global temperature series is a major indicator of climate change, whereas this indicator has undergone shift in trend over the twentieth century, changing from linear trend to nonlinear trend as a result of structural breaks. This paper investigates global and regional sea surface (SS) and land air surface (LS) temperature series from 1880 to 2016 by means of fractional integration technique. The results show that temperature series are described by trend stationary process, mostly in long memory range in the case of LS temperature while in the case of SS temperature, temperature series are in nonstationary mean reverting range for global and hemispheric temperature as well as for three other regional locations. By applying the multiple structural break test, the trend line is found breaking in many dates, locking up into many regimes which can be described using nonlinear trend structure. Nonlinear trend, based on Chebyshev inequality in the fractional integration framework, shows that global and regional temperature series can be represented using nonlinear trend up to the third order since this further lowers the integration order to long memory range in both SS and LS temperature series.
[en] Conclusions: ♦ SMR CHP has significant role in heat demand provision considering low emissions scenarios; ♦ SMR only electricity are not built; ♦ Only SMR CHP are ‘interesting’ to PLEXOS model; ♦ Due to high variability of heat demand (season but also during week) SMR CHP has rather low heat CF; ♦ SMR CHPs are superior even to Biomas CHP plants in this model.
[en] During recent years, various studies have focused on investigating the direct and indirect impacts of climate changes in Iran while the noteworthy fact is the achievement gained by these researches. Furthermore, what should be taken into consideration is whether these studies have been able to provide appropriate opportunities for improving further studies in this particular field or not. To address these questions, this study systematically reviewed and summarized the current available literature (n = 150) regarding the impacts of climate change on temperature and precipitation in Iran to assess our current state of knowledge. The results revealed that while all studies discuss the probable changes in temperature and precipitation over the next decades, serious contradictions could be seen in their results; also, the general pattern of changes was different in most of the cases. This matter may have a significant effect on public beliefs in climate change, which can be a serious warning for the activists in this realm.
[en] Climate change is a real phenomenon with proven evidence, it represents the biggest challenge humanity is facing . In light of this issue, architecture should be able to adapt in order to guarantee hygrothermal comfort of people inside buildings, in the context of an increasingly warmer planet. If the climate changes, architecture should too. This investigation´s overall purpose is to achieve hygrothermal comfort of people in the context of climate change in Costa Rica, by adapting selected buildings to two different scenarios, using projected data and simulation software. This project is based on the thesis of Arch. Andrea Sancho  which is about performance based design. Climate change will affect the national territory entirely. However, it’s necessary to identify the most vulnerable study zone by doing a three-layer analysis: ecological , demographic  and economic  . After the definition of the study zone, possible buildings to study are listed and selected through a series of evaluation criteria such as: location, type, useful life, etc. A bioclimatic analysis was done for every zone and building selected. In the macro scale, annual weather data as well as geographical data are analyzed, with the purpose of determining the different comfort ranges for each region. In the meso scale, a building analysis is done, taking into consideration its immediate environment; Also, an hourly weather data file is created for each region using data provided by the National Weather Institute of Costa Rica (IMN) in order to do a first simulation. In the micro scale, a comparison between the inside and the outside temperature is done, to evaluate the performance of the envelope through long term measurements...
[en] The temporal evolution of soil organic carbon (SOC) is of major importance given its status as a key parameter in many soil functions. Furthermore, soils constitute an important reservoir of carbon in our environment. In light of climate change, consistent SOC data over extended periods in combination with information on agricultural management are much required, but still scarce. We report SOC changes in the topsoil (0–20 cm) of Swiss cropland measured at well-defined monitoring sites resampled every 5 years from 1990 to 2014 by the Swiss Soil Monitoring Network NABO using consistent sampling protocols and quality assurance. Data on agricultural management practices were retrieved from farmers. Overall, SOC remained stable for the ensemble of monitoring sites, although increasing and decreasing trends were observed for individual sites, ranging from − 11 to + 16% relative change per decade. Changes in the agricultural management of cropland triggered substantial changes in SOC contents for some sites. Moreover, sites with a low ratio of SOC/clay (< 0.1) generally showed more positive trends than sites with higher ratios. We presume that SOC was either at or near steady state, given the consistency of management practices over the last few decades. Finally, our study provides insights into the uncertainties related to (real-world) SOC monitoring and underlines the relevance of short-term SOC variations that could hamper the detection of long-term trends. The minimum detectable change (MDC) by the applied monitoring scheme is estimated at 0.35% per year, in relative terms.
[en] Although the Chinese government emphasizes the significance of public transportation development and encourages green travel, no empirical study has examined whether the expansion of public transportation facilitates the mitigation of carbon emissions. To this end, we employ a panel quantile regression to test the endogenous relationship between public transportation scale and carbon emissions. The results suggest that the effect of public transportation scale on carbon emissions is heterogeneous across China’s provinces based on the level of carbon emissions. Even so, the results still support a stable inverted U-shaped relationship between public transportation scale and carbon emissions for provinces with different levels of carbon emissions. That is, when public transportation scale exceeds a threshold value, the relationship between public transportation and carbon emissions will turn from positive to negative. Our findings provide evidence advocating for public transportation development and green travel. It is of great significance for China to respond to climate changes.
[en] Decadal variability in the Botswana High and its relationships with rainfall, temperature and circulation over the southern African region are examined. This High exists in the mid-troposphere over subtropical southern Africa from early spring through to early autumn. Although its seasonal and interannual variability have been previously studied, lower frequency variability in the Botswana High has not. An EOF analysis of 500 hPa geopotential height from the NCEP Twentieth Century reanalyses reveals two modes both of which display substantial decadal to multidecadal variability. These modes, which explain almost 90% of the variance, reflect shifts in the summer core position of the High over central Namibia / western Botswana and in its strength. This decadal variability in the Botswana High is associated with sizeable changes in regional rainfall and surface temperature as well as changes in the onshore flow of moist marine air and uplift over many parts of southern Africa. Such changes are large enough to have important impacts on regional society and may also obscure climate change signals over the region.