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[en] Whereas there is not yet any offshore wind turbine farm along the French coast, three out of the eleven European factories producing wind turbines are located in France (in Saint-Nazaire, Cherbourg and Le Havre). They belong to different actors, General Electric and Siemens Gamesa which are represented by their subsidiaries (Alstom Energie and Areva Wind). These factories are briefly presented. The situation of the whole French sector is discussed: it nearly covers the whole range of activities, but some components still come from abroad, notably from China. The high level of competition in Europe is outlined. A second article focuses on a specific aspect of the floating wind energy sector to notice that oil companies are interested in entering this sector because technologies are close to those of oil offshore platforms
[en] Whereas the Covid-19 crisis has revealed the loss of strategic autonomy by France with respect to some basic goods, and has made even more visible the French industrial dropping out during the last twenty years, this article first aims at establishing a relationship between the crisis of 1970 and the current one, and at studying the stakes represented by French nuclear installations and the nuclear sector as a whole for relocation policies and, beyond that, for re-industrialisation. The author proposes an analysis of comparative benefits of nuclear as a sovereignty tool (nuclear was a response to the first oil shock; France must be prepared to face new energy shocks; the French nuclear basis must be secured on the long term), as a competitiveness factor (the acknowledged quality of the French electric power, one of the lowest price for industrial power), as a vector of skills (a still comprehensive high technology sector; a territorial ecosystem for a possible re-industrialisation), and as a key operator for decarbonization (carbon footprint of products and services is to become a competitiveness factor; a stake for the industry 4.0; a stake in the race for a new green fuel like low carbon hydrogen).
[fr]La crise du Covid-19 a revele la perte d'autonomie strategique de la France par rapport a certains biens essentiels et rendu d'autant plus visible le decrochage industriel francais sur les vingt dernieres annees. Ce decrochage est responsable non seulement d'une perte de souverainete mais aussi certainement en partie de la fracture sociale et territoriale grandissante. Alors que le plan de relance presente en septembre 2020 par le gouvernement accorde une importance particuliere aux projets de relocalisations, cette etude s'interesse aux avantages que representent les installations nucleaires et la filiere nucleaire francaise dans son ensemble pour les politiques de relocalisation et, au-dela, de reindustrialisation. Elle demontre notamment que le nucleaire est en France un outil de souverainete permettant de resister aux chocs energetiques, un facteur de competitivite-cout favorisant l'attractivite internationale du pays pour les industriels et un vecteur de competences, terreau d'une possible reindustrialisation au coeur des territoires. Finalement, la filiere nucleaire francaise est un operateur cle de la decarbonation en France et presente des atouts certains, non seulement parce que l'empreinte carbone des produits et services est amenee a devenir un nouveau facteur de competitivite mais aussi parce qu'elle permet a notre pays de se placer dans la course au carburant vert (l'hydrogene) et de se positionner dans les secteurs de demain gros consommateurs d'electricite, tels celui des data centers.
[en] Mesophilic anaerobic digestion (AD) is less efficient than thermophilic AD for inactivating bacterial pathogens. Decreases in fecal bacteria indicators (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp.) and pathogenic bacteria range from 1 to 3 Log. However, during the storage of digestates, natural 'disinfection' occurs due to diverse microorganisms present in the digestate. Further investigation of the biotic mechanisms at work would make it possible to assess the value of digestate recovery in terms of pathogen elimination. The objective of the PRObiotic project was to study how the activity of digestate microorganisms, which is related to competition for available nutrients, influences the inactivation of pathogenic bacteria. A combination of physicochemical and biochemical analyses (fractionation of organic matter, 3D spectro-fluorimetry), microbiology (culture, qPCR, diversity analysis by NGS sequencing) and biodegradability tests under anaerobic and aerobic conditions has shown that the survival of Salmonella enterica serotype Derby inoculated into digestates decreases as availability of organic matter and microbial activity increases. When the organic matter of the digestate is strongly stabilized, the 'barrier effect' of the indigenous microorganisms of the digestate decreases. In the case of Listeria monocytogenes, the nature of the post-treatment is more important: this bacterium does not often survive when inoculated into composted digestates, whereas it can be maintained for 40 days after inoculation into non-post-treated digestates. This study shows how understanding the biotic processes involved can help improve both the microbial controls dynamics and microbiological risk management. (authors)
[en] The organization of the electricity market as we know it today in Europe and in a number of other countries has its intellectual roots in issues of thirty years ago. The first European directive that initiates the opening to competition of the electricity sector in Europe will celebrate this year its twenty-three years. The Electricity Act in the United Kingdom, which dismantles and privatizes the integrated electricity monopoly and establishes a mandatory exchange exchange, will be thirty years this summer. The theoretical sources of this movement are even older: the founding economic work of Paul Joskow and Richard Schmalensee (Joskow, 1983) was published more than thirty-five years ago. Thus, the architecture and organization of our electrical systems in Europe is based on an intellectual landscape of more than a quarter of a century (Mistral, 2019).
[en] Launched for the reconversion of the Fessenheim site, the tender 'Energy transition of the Fessenheim territory' from the French French Energy Regulation Commission deals with the realisation and the exploitation of solar power plants in the Haut-Rhin department. It aims at developing both ground-based photovoltaic plants and photovoltaic roofing. The tender comprises 3 tranches with submissions between July 2019 and July 2026. This document analyses the results of the second tranche published on April 1, 2020, which aimed at allocating 120 MWe. 60 MWe were allocated to the first tranche and 120 MWe will be allocated to the third one
Information report on the behalf of the Commission for economic affairs on the recovery plan of the Commission for economic affairs. Tome IV - energy 'For a low-carbon recovery: resilience, competitiveness, solidarity' - N. 535. Roadmap for a low-carbon recovery: 45 measures to make carbon neutrality the stimulus of the recovery plan
[en] Based on several hearings, this parliamentary report addresses the challenge faced to reach the 'carbon neutrality' objective issued from the Paris Agreement of 2015, notably in the economic context resulting from the Covid-19 crisis. Thus, the report aims at proposing a change of approach by awarding means to companies and to households to implement energy transition. The authors propose a roadmap for a low-carbon recovery. It comprises 45 measures which are gathered within ten axes in order to stimulate the economy by accelerating its decarbonization. These ten axes are: to stay the course of carbon neutrality while actually applying the 'Energy-climate' law, to support energy producers, providers and distributors, to strengthen the competitiveness of de-carbonized electric power, to massify energy renovation operations, to secure the financing and to simplify the deployment of renewable energies, to support biofuels in the context of oil crisis, to reveal the hydrogen potential, to mobilise public procurement and private demand in favour of clean vehicles, and to protect energy consumers from the increasing risk of energy poverty.
[en] Established on 24 March 2000, the Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission de regulation de l'energie - CRE) is an independent administrative authority. Working for the benefit of end consumers, it contributes to the proper functioning of the electricity and natural gas markets. It ensures the absence of any discrimination, cross subsidy or obstacle to competition. It participates in the construction of the European energy market. This activity report celebrates the 20 years of CRE existence. Contents: 1 - Message from the chairman; 2 - Message from the college; 3 - 3 minutes to understand the CRE; 4 - An overview of energy in France; 5 - The construction of the European energy market; 6 - Opening up the markets; 7 - Adapting electricity grids to energy transition; 8 - Transformations in the gas sector; 9 - Energy transition at work in the non-interconnected zones; 10 - Annexes and CRE reports.
[en] Between 2030 and 2050, France will have to replace many of its nuclear reactors with new means of production, including reactors of a new generation. Several issues crop up. Energy-related issues: given the extremely fast pace at which reactors were built in the 1980s, France might discover that it is standing on the edge of a cliff in the 2040's. Economic issues: to trim the costs of new reactors, leverage can be gained from an optimized program for assessing competitive advantages in terms of the services delivered to the electricity grid. Industrial issues: skills and qualifications are needed to build new reactors. Though partially kept up to date through the construction of the EPR in Flamanville, these skills risk once again becoming obsolescent if the nuclear industry, which has difficulty recruiting, does not soon gain better visibility of the work-sites to be planned. (author)
[en] French stakeholders in civilian nuclear energy are making a full diagnosis of the industry in order to cope with disappointments and lay down the conditions for re-launching programs for building reactors. This is the time to envision this industry's strategic dimension. Given global technological warfare and bi-polarization (United States vs. China), France and the European Union must work out a strategy for controlling value chains in all forms of low-carbon technology. A key component is civilian nuclear energy. The risk is that China, Russia and, to a lesser extent, the United States come to dominate exportation markets and lock out other countries. France and the EU might lose influence over the world governance of this sector and the nonproliferation of nuclear weapons. Meanwhile, several countries want to acquire nuclear technology, which is now oriented toward small modular reactors. (author)
[en] After a presentation CRE's observation and surveillance mission and of some key figures illustrating the French electricity and natural gas markets, this report presents, first, the 2019 situation of the French residential and non-residential electric power and natural gas retail markets: suppliers, competition, tariffs, impact on households of the energy transition policy, impact on professionals of deregulation and consumption cut-off offers. Then the operation of retail markets is presented: impact of capacity auction mechanisms, cost of energy savings certificates, contestability of regulated tariffs, suppliers' pricing practices and CRE monitoring. A last section presents the green electricity offers and their comparative evaluation.