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[en] The conventional education system that is a teacher-oriented is not defining and achieving the expected learning outcomes of the engineering students in Pakistan. Being the full signatory of the Washington Accord, Pakistan Engineering Council (PEC) declared the implementation of OBE system compulsory for the engineering institutes to get accreditation. Many public and private institutes are yet hesitant to adopt and implement the OBE system due to its dynamic approach and built-in complexity. This paper presents the implementation of the outcome-based education system in the department of electrical engineering, Riphah International University, as a case study. However, the approach is to highlight and meet the major requirements for any engineering program. The OBE system was successfully implemented to meet the university mission and vision through Program Educational Objectives (PEOs), Program Learning Outcomes (PLOs) and the Course Learning Outcomes (CLOs) through a well-defined and certain approach. This paper will be a guideline for the public and private institutes in Pakistan, inclined to implement the OBE system under the Washington accord signatory of Pakistan Engineering Council. (author)
[en] Energy sector as a lever for Sustainable Development - Goals: Create competition in generation and commercialization through the creation of the Wholesale Electricity Market. Promote private investment in transmission and distribution through contracts with the Government. Speed up the energy transition towards a low carbon economy: improving the use of clean energies and more energy efficiency. Democratize access to energy.
[en] Mesophilic anaerobic digestion (AD) is less efficient than thermophilic AD for inactivating bacterial pathogens. Decreases in fecal bacteria indicators (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp.) and pathogenic bacteria range from 1 to 3 Log. However, during the storage of digestates, natural 'disinfection' occurs due to diverse microorganisms present in the digestate. Further investigation of the biotic mechanisms at work would make it possible to assess the value of digestate recovery in terms of pathogen elimination. The objective of the PRObiotic project was to study how the activity of digestate microorganisms, which is related to competition for available nutrients, influences the inactivation of pathogenic bacteria. A combination of physicochemical and biochemical analyses (fractionation of organic matter, 3D spectro-fluorimetry), microbiology (culture, qPCR, diversity analysis by NGS sequencing) and biodegradability tests under anaerobic and aerobic conditions has shown that the survival of Salmonella enterica serotype Derby inoculated into digestates decreases as availability of organic matter and microbial activity increases. When the organic matter of the digestate is strongly stabilized, the 'barrier effect' of the indigenous microorganisms of the digestate decreases. In the case of Listeria monocytogenes, the nature of the post-treatment is more important: this bacterium does not often survive when inoculated into composted digestates, whereas it can be maintained for 40 days after inoculation into non-post-treated digestates. This study shows how understanding the biotic processes involved can help improve both the microbial controls dynamics and microbiological risk management. (authors)
[en] Launched for the reconversion of the Fessenheim site, the tender 'Energy transition of the Fessenheim territory' from the French French Energy Regulation Commission deals with the realisation and the exploitation of solar power plants in the Haut-Rhin department. It aims at developing both ground-based photovoltaic plants and photovoltaic roofing. The tender comprises 3 tranches with submissions between July 2019 and July 2026. This document analyses the results of the second tranche published on April 1, 2020, which aimed at allocating 120 MWe. 60 MWe were allocated to the first tranche and 120 MWe will be allocated to the third one
[en] Objective: Assist Member States in performing a thorough assessment of the RR utilization, of its existing and potential capabilities and to identify further utilization areas, R&D and products and services that the RR can provide. Background: Number of operational RRs decreasing; remaining fleet is aged; Still not all facilities are fully utilised; pressure for selfreliance and demonstration of contribution to national objectives; Not all facilities developed strategic plans and outreach programmes; Competition from accelerator-based and other technologies. Scope: Directed to all the major activities of the RR or; limited to specific applications; Documents reviewed beforehand: Updated strategic plan; Utilization performance indicators; (planned utilization targets for RRs in extended shutdown); Self-assessment report based on utilization; assessment criteria; Review of RR strategic plan and corresponding action; plans;; Review of the utilization level, and against available; capabilities of the RR; Review of the potential capabilities given the needs; for RR R&D, products and services and the; constraints/threats that may limit their development; Identification of the gaps and areas of improvement. Outcomes: Expanded utilization in education and training, R&D and provision of products and services; Strengthened RR user community and enlarged utilization stakeholder base; Support MS decision to invest towards increased utilization, or shutdown.
[en] In Brazil, as it has been occurring worldwide, the number of procedures using radiopharmaceuticals are increasing. The production and selling of short half-life radioisotopes are monopolized by the Brazilian Government. In 2006, a Constitutional Amendment revoked the state monopoly due to the need for the use of short half-life radioisotopes in nuclear medicine centres very far from government production facilities. The aim of this study is to describe the current status of radioisotope production and sales in Brazil and discuss some licensing process. Currently, there are 14 radiopharmaceuticals production facilities and 4 radiopharmacies operating in Brazil. The type of licensing process conducted in Brazil does not take into account the population density of each state, with a free competition model being adopted. Because of this, there are a lot of equipment concentrated in the Southeast while no cyclotrons or radiopharmacy operating in the Northern part of the country. One of the biggest obstacles during the licensing process is the designation of qualified personnel in radiopharmacy or accelerator for radiopharmaceutical production as operation workers and radiation safety officers. Currently, there are only 17 qualified workers in these fields. Regarding regulatory inspection in Brazil, during the facilities licensing process two types of inspections are usually performed: one to monitor the radiopharmaceutical production (usually overnight) and another to verify records and to test security systems. The number of facilities for radiopharmaceuticals production and sales are increasing. However, several external factors such as the distance from the nuclear medicine centres, and qualified personnel have proved crucial for the economic viability of this type of facility, and a rigorous licensing process is necessary to ensure radiological protection. (author)
[en] The organization of the electricity market as we know it today in Europe and in a number of other countries has its intellectual roots in issues of thirty years ago. The first European directive that initiates the opening to competition of the electricity sector in Europe will celebrate this year its twenty-three years. The Electricity Act in the United Kingdom, which dismantles and privatizes the integrated electricity monopoly and establishes a mandatory exchange exchange, will be thirty years this summer. The theoretical sources of this movement are even older: the founding economic work of Paul Joskow and Richard Schmalensee (Joskow, 1983) was published more than thirty-five years ago. Thus, the architecture and organization of our electrical systems in Europe is based on an intellectual landscape of more than a quarter of a century (Mistral, 2019).
[en] After a presentation CRE's observation and surveillance mission and of some key figures illustrating the French electricity and natural gas markets, this report presents, first, the 2019 situation of the French residential and non-residential electric power and natural gas retail markets: suppliers, competition, tariffs, impact on households of the energy transition policy, impact on professionals of deregulation and consumption cut-off offers. Then the operation of retail markets is presented: impact of capacity auction mechanisms, cost of energy savings certificates, contestability of regulated tariffs, suppliers' pricing practices and CRE monitoring. A last section presents the green electricity offers and their comparative evaluation.
[en] The initial investment cycle in civilian nuclear energy occurred during the 1970's, before the trend in the OECD toward opening electricity markets. Now, nuclear power is competing with renewable sources of energy, which are pulling prices down (in Europe) and/or with thermal energy production (in the United States). This pattern, which might shorten the life span of the nuclear power stations placed in operation during the 20. century, gives rise to uncertainty about how to finance plans for future power stations (supposing that, as in the British Hinkley Point project, a guarantee from 'outside the market' is provided). These observations proceed from market interactions between electricity production systems depending on their 'merits' (i.e., marginal costs) and, too, from imperfect assessments of how each system contributes to the electricity grid's capacity, services and, above all, carbon footprint. (author)
[en] The National Energy Ombudsman is an independent administrative authority that was created by the law of 7 December 2006 relating to the energy sector, in preparation for the imminent liberalisation of the French gas and electricity markets. It has two legal roles: participating in the process of informing consumers about their rights, and recommending solutions for settling disputes. The Ombudsman reports directly to the French Parliament. This report summarizes the 2019 highlights of the national energy ombudsman's activity: 1 - Priority files: markets opening to the consumers benefit, end of gas regulated sales tariff, fight against abusive unwanted solicitations, improving suppliers practices; 2 - 2019 report: a more and more requested conciliation, information requests and disputes still on the rise, too much unsatisfactory practices from operators, still disputes about electrical rising mains in collective buildings, billing delays, fuel poverty, smart meters; 3 - 10 proposals for the future, 2019 key figures, generic recommendations; 4 - Interviews, concrete cases and focusses