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[en] As the global electricity systems are shaped by decentralisation, digitalisation and decarbonization, the World Energy Council's Innovation Insights Briefs explore the new frontiers in energy transitions and the challenges of keeping pace with fast moving developments. We use leadership interviews to map the state of play and case studies across the whole energy landscape and build a broader and deeper picture of new developments within and beyond the new energy technology value chain and business ecosystem. The topic of this briefing is energy storage. We interviewed energy leaders from 17 countries, exploring recent progress in terms of technology, business models and enabling policies. We showcase these in 10 case studies. While the brief addresses energy storage as a whole, most insights are focused on electrical storage. Our research highlighted that today's mainstream storage technologies are unlikely to be sufficient to meet future flexibility requirements resulting from further decentralisation and decarbonization efforts. Furthermore, a restricted focus on lithium-ion batteries is putting the development of more cost-effective alternative technologies at risk. A detailed list of the interviews with innovators, energy users and producers can be found at the end of this brief. Annex 4 provides a list of acronyms and abreviations. With major decarbonizing efforts to remove thermal electric power generation and scale up renewable energies, the widespread adoption of energy storage continues to be described as the key game changer for electricity systems. Affordable storage systems are a critical missing link between intermittent renewable power and 24/7 reliability net-zero carbon scenario. Beyond solving this salient challenge, energy storage is being increasingly considered to meet other needs such as relieving congestion or smoothing out the variations in power that occur independently of renewable-energy generation. However, whilst there is plenty of visionary thinking, recent progress has focused on short-duration and battery-based energy storage for efficiency gains and ancillary services; there is limited progress in developing daily, weekly and even seasonal cost-effective solutions which are indispensable for a global reliance on intermittent renewable energy sources. The synthesis of thought leadership interviews and case studies with 37 companies and organizations from 17 countries helped derive the following key takeaways and also provide the impetus to the solution steps that we discuss in detail later in this brief: 1 - Shared road-maps: Energy storage is a well-researched flexibility solution. However, while the benefits of energy storage are clear to the energy community, there has been limited bridge-building with policy-makers and regulators to explore the behavioural and policy changes necessary to encourage implementation. 2 - Market design - Access and stacking: Market access and the ability to stack different services simultaneously will enable cost-effective deployment of energy storage, regardless of the technology. 3 - More than batteries: Energy storage is too often reduced to battery technologies. Future-proofing our energy systems means considering alternative solutions and ensuring technologies have equal market opportunities. Demonstration projects of such technologies are necessary to disprove bias towards specific technologies. 4 - Sector coupling: Energy storage presents a sector coupling opportunity between hard-to-abate sectors, such as mobility and industry and clean electricity. Different vectors of energy can be used, including heat, electricity and hydrogen. 5 - Investment: Relying on investments by adjacent sectors such as the automotive sector is not enough. The energy sector must adopt more aggressively technologies aligned with the end-goal: affordable clean energy for all.
[fr]L'adoption a grande echelle du stockage de l'energie est consideree comme un changement de paradigme majeur pour le systeme energetique. Le developpement d'une technologie de stockage accessible aux consommateurs constitue le chainon manquant pour rendre fiables les energies renouvelables variables. En depit de ce defi technique, le stockage de l'energie peut remplir un role au-dela des energies renouvelables, notamment dans le controle des congestions et les variations de puissance du reseau. Malgre ces perspectives encourageantes, les progres autour du stockage sont restes centres sur les services secondaires et les gains d'efficacite acquis par le stockage a court terme. En revanche, tres peu de progres a ete fait vers les solutions diurnes, hebdomadaires ou saisonnieres rentables, qui sont necessaires a la fiabilite des sources d'energies renouvelables. Conclusions principales: 1 - Feuille de route partagee: le stockage d'energie est une solution de flexibilite reconnue. Cependant, il existe tres peu de visions communes entre legislateurs et experts, bien que tous reconnaissent le potentiel du stockage. 2 - Structure du marche: obtenir un deploiement rentable du stockage se fera grace a un acces equitable au marche et un cumul de differents services, quelle que soit la technologie utilisee. 3 - Au-dela des batteries: le stockage energetique est trop souvent reduit aux batteries. Un systeme energetique a l'epreuve du temps doit s'appuyer sur des solutions diverses, encouragees par un acces equitable aux opportunites sur le marche. 4 - Couplage sectoriel: le stockage energetique represente une veritable opportunite de couplage entre les secteurs difficiles a decarboner et les energies renouvelables. Differents vecteurs d'energie peuvent etre utilises, y compris la chaleur, l'electricite et l'hydrogene. 5 - Investissements: il faut diversifier les investissements au-dela des secteurs adjacents, tel que le secteur automobile. Le secteur energetique doit adopter de maniere plus agressive les technologies alignees avec leur finalite: de l'energie propre pour tous.
[en] With the important development of off-shore wind energy (22 GW in 2019, 70 GW in 2030), wind farms always further from coasts, comes the issue of the way to manage the surplus or to regulate electric power production. This article briefly comments the assessment of an envisaged technology which has been developed by a German research institute: the use of concrete spheres, immersed and equipped with a pump/turbine to create a pumped storage power station. A model at a one third scale is about to be built
[en] In the context of developing renewable energies, storing energy improves energy efficiency and promotes the insertion of intermittent renewable energies. It consists of accumulating energy for later use in a place that may be the same or different from the place of production. Converting electrical energy to high-pressure air seems a promising solution in the energy storage field: it is characterized by a high reliability, low environmental impact and a remarkable stored energy density (kWh/m3). Currently, many researchers are focusing on developing small scale of the compressed air energy storage system (CAES) coupled to a building applications based on the work done for multiple large scale CAES systems installed in the world. A global numerical model of trigeneration CAES system coupled to a building model and renewable energy modules was developed in order to analyze the CAES system behavior responding to electrical, building heating and cooling demands. Different energy scenarios (autonomous and connected to the grid modes), geographical locations and building typologies were proposed and analyzed. The CAES numerical model development is based on solving energy and heat transfer equations for each system component (compressor/expander, heat exchanger, high pressure air reservoir, thermal water storage tank). Adiabatic compressor and expander were firstly selected to investigate the trigeneration advanced adiabatic compressed air energy system (AA-CAES) coupled to the building and to grids with the different scenarios described above. Connected mode showed more benefits sides from using the CAES system coupled to the building and to grids with an electrical load management of 75.9 % (Nice location). In addition, the trigeneration AA-CAES system offered a compromise between the electrical round-trip efficiency (output/input), hot and cold coverage in function of building applications and the renewable energy modules size. Similar to adiabatic components, quasi-isothermal compressor and expander developed by LightSail Energy and Enairys Powertech were also analyzed by solving the energy and heat transfer equations for each phase of the compression and expansion processes. These analytical models allowed us to have a better understanding of these technologies operations and to have several orders of magnitudes of different physical parameters. The LightSail Energy technology showed more interests for hot/cold water production while compressing/expanding air than the Enairys Powertech technology which presented a nearly quasi-isothermal air compression/expansion process. I-CAES and AA-CAES were also compared from a financial point of view based on compressed air market analysis. Three different prototypes were studied: Two AA-CAES systems (ideal and virtual (some of which are based on commercial units found in the compressed air market)) and one I-CAES system (based on LightSail Energy CAES prototype). The compressed air market is concentrated on the small power units which make the small scale AA-CAES prototype building complicated specially for high storage pressure. Based on LCOE analysis, the LightSail Energy prototype presented the lowest cost of energy delivered (Euro/kWh) for a 20 years of operational period. (author)
[fr]Le developpement des energies renouvelables pose la question du stockage de l'energie electrique. L'utilisation du stockage par air comprime semble une solution prometteuse dans le domaine du stockage d'energie: elle se caracterise par une grande fiabilite, un faible impact environnemental et une remarquable densite energetique stockee (kWh/m3). Jusqu'a present, l'air comprime a ete utilise dans de nombreux domaines comme vecteur d'energie pour stocker differentes formes d'energies (transport routier, poste pneumatique, plongee sous-marine). Neanmoins, actuellement de nombreux chercheurs se concentrent sur le developpement de stockage d'energie par air comprime (CAES) a petite echelle couple a une application de batiment en se basant sur les travaux developpes pour les multiples systemes de CAES a grande echelle installes dans le monde. Un modele numerique global du systeme de stockage par air comprime a petite echelle, couple a un modele de batiment et a des modules d'energie renouvelable a ete developpe dans le but de modeliser differents compresseurs/detendeurs et structures d'installation developpes par plusieurs startups (LightSail Energy et Enairys Powertech) et chercheurs. Plusieurs scenarios energetiques (autonomes et connectes aux reseaux), localisations geographiques et typologies de batiments ont ete proposes et analyses. Le developpement du modele numerique CAES a ete base sur la resolution de l'equation de conservation de l'energie et des equations de transferts pour chaque composant du systeme (compresseur/detendeur, echangeur, reservoir d'air haute pression, reservoir de stockage d'eau chaude/froide). Les compresseurs et detendeurs adiabatiques ont d'abord ete selectionnes pour etudier le systeme de trigeneration de stockage d'energie par air comprime adiabatique avance (AACAES) couple au batiment et aux reseaux avec les differents scenarios decrits ci-dessus. Le mode connecte aux reseaux (electrique, chaud et froid) a montre l'importance d'utiliser le systeme CAES couple au batiment et aux reseaux avec un effacement electrique de 75,9 % (Nice). En outre, le systeme AA-CAES de trigeneration (electrique, chaud et froid) offre un compromis entre l'efficacite du systeme electrique, le taux de couverture du chaud et le taux de couverture du froid en fonction de l'application du batiment et de la taille des modules d'energie renouvelable. Les compresseurs et detendeurs quasi-isothermes developpes par LightSail Energy et Enairys Powertech ont ete modelises pour chaque phase de la compression et de la detente. Ces modeles analytiques ont permis une meilleure comprehension du fonctionnement principal de ces technologies et d'avoir l'ordre de grandeur de differents parametres physiques. La technologie LightSail Energy a montre plus d'interet par la production d'eau chaude/froide lors de la compression/detente de l'air que la technologie Enairys Powertech qui presente une compression/detente d'air d'avantage isotherme avec des rejets thermiques trop proches de la temperature ambiante pour etre recuperable. Les systemes I-CAES et AA-CAES sont compares d'un point de vue financier en se referant a une analyse du marche des systemes de production/utilisation de l'air comprime. Trois prototypes differents ont ete etudies: deux systemes AA-CAES (ideal et virtuel (bases sur des unites commerciales trouvees sur le marche de l'air comprime)) et un systeme I-CAES (base sur le prototype LightSail Energy CAES). Le marche de la turbine est concentre sur les petites plages de pression et pour cela le montage d'un prototype AA-CAES avec une pression de stockage importante est complique. A partir de l'analyse economique LCOE (levelized cost of energy), il apparait que le prototype LightSail Energy presente le cout d'energie livre le plus bas (Euros/kWh) pour une periode operationnelle de 20 ans. (auteur)
[en] Over the last two decades, Pakistan’s energy demand has grown exponentially with very diminutive measures taken by the government to fulfill the needs. The large power plant projects are cumbersome, take years to be completed and require plenty of time to get fully operational. The idea of distributed generation works well in this case. Renewable energy comes well into play when we talk about distributed generation but the dependability of renewable energy resources on back-up such as batteries makes them unappealing. The objective of this paper is to practically implement a backup for the renewable energy resources using a mechanical storage such as CAES (Compressed Air Energy System). The proposed model is a composite technology, which comprises of EES (Electrical Energy Storage) and electrical power supply system. Solar energy driven compressor is used to compress the air in a storage tank, which is used on demand to drive the generator coupled air turbine. The fact that the developed system is solar powered, no other fuel is used with air and it uses mechanical storage instead of conventional storage like batteries, which makes the developed prototype system efficient, economical and durable as compared to the existing CAES. This paper focuses on the thermodynamic investigation, design and finally implementing a prototype CAES for a small load as an un-interrupted power supply system. (author)
[en] In recent years, studying on energy production processes has been more popular by the sharp increasing trend of energy consumption and loss. One of the effective ways considered for energy loss avoidance in power generation system is using heat loss of power cycles to provide demanded heat for industrial units. Employing auxiliary cycles and compressed air energy system alongside main power production cycle improves the produced power and performance of combined heat and power systems. In this study, a novel combined heat and power system with Brayton cycle as the main power production unit using wind renewable energy, compressed air energy system, and Rankine and organic Rankine cycles is proposed and simulated for residential approaches. All parts of model are validated via the previous published researches and the performance of proposed system in different operating conditions is investigated in detail energetically and exergetically. Results show the acceptable performance of proposed system in peak times as well as low load hours. The increase of gas turbine expansion ratio brings more first and second law efficiencies, while more irreversibility is created by compressor compression ratio increase. In addition, produced power and irreversibility have linear trend by inlet air mass flow rate beside no change in the first and second law efficiencies. Demanded mass flow rate of fuel, Rankine, organic Rankine cycle, and heating system are directly affected by inlet air mass flow rate and overall thermal efficiency can be increased by simultaneous turbine and compressor pressure ratio increase.
[en] Experience in optimal synthesis of individual vehicle components and mechanisms on the basis of additive technology is analyzed. A list of basic additive technologies is presented. The benefits of additive technology in combination with three-dimensional computer simulation are noted. The possibility of visualizing CAE calculations by means of additive technology is considered. In addition, the role of additive technology in the manufacture of individual vehicle components and mechanisms is discussed.
[en] Wind energy is an important field of development for the island of Gotland, Sweden, especially since the island has set targets to generate 100% of its energy from renewable sources by 2025. Due to the variability of wind conditions, energy storage will be an important technology to facilitate the continued development of wind energy on Gotland and ensure a stable and secure supply of electricity. In this study, the feasibility of utilizing the Middle Cambrian Faludden sandstone reservoir on Gotland for Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) is assessed. Firstly, a characterization of the sandstone beneath Gotland is presented, which includes detailed maps of reservoir thickness and top reservoir structure. Analysis of this information shows that the properties of the Faludden sandstone and associated cap rock appear favorable for the application of CAES. Seven structural closures are identified below the eastern and southern parts of Gotland, which could potentially be utilized for CAES. Scoping estimates of the energy storage capacity and flow rate for these closures within the Faludden sandstone show that industrial scale CAES could be possible on Gotland.
[en] Storing electricity is undoubtedly a major worldwide issue in the energy transition, since it is indispensable for uploading electricity from intermittent renewables (wind power and photovoltaics) to the grid. The value of storing electricity is related to the services obtained, especially in areas where the grid is insufficient. The centralization of hydroelectricity - still, by far, the prevailing technology - keeps it from satisfying all needs. The rapidly lowering cost of lithium-ion batteries represents an opportunity, especially for transportation, electricity grids and, to a lesser extent, consumers who produce their own current. Battery storage can compete with others forms of technology or services for managing flexibility: steering demand (load management), storing heat, etc. For mainland France, it would be utopian to imagine an electricity mix based only on hydro, wind and photovoltaic power and the storage of electricity, since its cost would soar within a foreseeable period of time. (authors)
[fr]Au niveau mondial, le stockage de l'electricite est sans aucun doute l'un des defis majeurs de la transition energetique, car il est indispensable a l'integration dans le systeme electrique des energies renouvelables intermittentes (EnRi), l'eolien et le photovoltaique. La valeur du stockage d'electricite est liee aux differents services qu'il peut rendre, particulierement dans les zones ou le reseau est insuffisant. L'hydraulique est encore, de tres loin, la technologie predominante, mais elle est centralisee, ce qui ne permet pas de repondre a tous les besoins. La baisse rapide des couts des batteries Li-Ion est une opportunite, notamment pour la mobilite et pour differents services aux reseaux electriques et, dans une faible mesure, aux auto-consommateurs. Le stockage par batterie peut etre en competition avec d'autres technologies ou services permettant de gerer la flexibilite: pilotage de la demande (effacements), stockage de chaleur, etc. En ce qui concerne la France metropolitaine, un mix electrique compose uniquement d'hydraulique, d'eolien, de photovoltaique et de stockage parait utopique, tant son cout serait enorme a un horizon de temps previsible. (auteurs)
[en] Highlights: • Mode 4 has the highest exergy efficiency. • Mode 2 has the largest exergy density. • Second heat exchanger has the largest exergy destruction. - Abstract: Advanced adiabatic compressed air energy storage system plays an important role in smoothing out the fluctuated power from renewable energy. Under different operation modes of charge-discharge process, thermodynamic behavior of system will vary. In order to optimize system performance, four operation modes of charge-discharge process are proposed in this paper. The performance difference of four modes is compared with each other based on energy analysis and exergy analysis. The results show that exergy efficiency of mode 4 is the highest, 55.71%, and exergy density of mode 2 is the largest, 8.09 × 106 J m−3, when design parameters of system are identical. The second heat exchanger has the most improvement potential in elevating system performance. In addition, a parametric analysis and multi-objective optimization are also carried out to assess the effects of several key parameters on system performance.
[en] This report documents findings from the Hybrid Systems Task Force of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) Geothermal Vision Study (GeoVision Study). The GeoVision Study projects and quantifies the future electric and nonelectric deployment potentials of geothermal technologies within a range of scenarios in addition to their impacts on U.S. jobs, the economy, and environment. The Hybrid Systems Task Force is one of seven task forces within the GeoVision Study with the others being Exploration and Confirmation, Potential to Penetration, Thermal Applications, Reservoir Maintenance and Development, Institutional Market Barriers, and Social and Environmental Impacts. A summary of the study is captured in DOE’s report, GeoVision: Harnessing the Heat Beneath Our Feet. The Hybrid Systems Task Force investigated geothermal hybrid systems that have potential to increase the utilization of geothermal resources and/or decrease the costs of geothermal power generation. Applications evaluated include: hybrid thermal power generation in which geothermal energy is coupled with solar or fossil heat sources; use of geothermal energy to provide process heat for thermal desalination or CO2 capture from fossil power plants; analysis of compressed air energy storage augmented with geothermal energy; as well as an assessment of potential mineral recovery from geothermal brines. This report additionally discusses areas of research and development that should be pursued to enhance the ability of geothermal hybrid systems to provide valuable benefits in operational flexibility, reduction of project risks, increased energy security, and the ability to recover critical and strategic materials.