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[en] Experience in optimal synthesis of individual vehicle components and mechanisms on the basis of additive technology is analyzed. A list of basic additive technologies is presented. The benefits of additive technology in combination with three-dimensional computer simulation are noted. The possibility of visualizing CAE calculations by means of additive technology is considered. In addition, the role of additive technology in the manufacture of individual vehicle components and mechanisms is discussed.
[en] This article examines how the ability to ''store'' electricity can pay handsome dividends in a competitive environment. Priorities change when industries are deregulated. Indeed, new priorities are being established for electric generation--low cost, efficiency, product distinction for marketing purposes, etc. are all more critical today. Perhaps not so obvious is the fundamental role of energy storage in a fully competitive marketplace. In fact, rarely do a technology development and a changing business climate play off against each other so nicely. Consider the function of the emerging electricity broker, or power marketer. Imagine the premium that broker could command with access to a large increment of electricity--purchased at a low price--and supplied at a moment's notice for a substantially higher price. Storage of electricity would mean that the investment in excess available generation capacity to supply so-called peak demand could be avoided. It also means that electricity could be brokered like other commodities--that is purchased, stockpiled, and sold to reflect market conditions across a wider geographical region and time spain. Benefits accrue to transmission and distribution, in addition to generation. Energy storage helps to manage the increasing stress placed on the grid as a result of intermittent sources of power and large numbers of cogenerators and small power producers. On the customer side, any ratepayer large or small could, theoretically, play the spot market in electric supply with a reserve to tap in emergencies. For a parallel in other deregulated markets, recall how storage has become an important factor in natural-gas contracting. Quality of electricity also can be improved by applying storage to stabilize the grid, especially along the distribution system at substations. And the opening of vast markets for electricity consumption, such as electric vehicles, depends in large measure on electric storage
[en] This report documents findings from the Hybrid Systems Task Force of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) Geothermal Vision Study (GeoVision Study). The GeoVision Study projects and quantifies the future electric and nonelectric deployment potentials of geothermal technologies within a range of scenarios in addition to their impacts on U.S. jobs, the economy, and environment. The Hybrid Systems Task Force is one of seven task forces within the GeoVision Study with the others being Exploration and Confirmation, Potential to Penetration, Thermal Applications, Reservoir Maintenance and Development, Institutional Market Barriers, and Social and Environmental Impacts. A summary of the study is captured in DOE’s report, GeoVision: Harnessing the Heat Beneath Our Feet. The Hybrid Systems Task Force investigated geothermal hybrid systems that have potential to increase the utilization of geothermal resources and/or decrease the costs of geothermal power generation. Applications evaluated include: hybrid thermal power generation in which geothermal energy is coupled with solar or fossil heat sources; use of geothermal energy to provide process heat for thermal desalination or CO2 capture from fossil power plants; analysis of compressed air energy storage augmented with geothermal energy; as well as an assessment of potential mineral recovery from geothermal brines. This report additionally discusses areas of research and development that should be pursued to enhance the ability of geothermal hybrid systems to provide valuable benefits in operational flexibility, reduction of project risks, increased energy security, and the ability to recover critical and strategic materials.
[en] Alfvén cyclotron instabilities excited by velocity gradients of energetic beam ions were investigated in MAST experiments with super-Alfvénic neutral beam injection over a wide range of toroidal magnetic fields from ∼0.34 T to ∼0.585 T. In MAST discharges with high magnetic field, a discrete spectrum of modes in the sub-cyclotron frequency range is excited toroidally propagating counter to the beam and plasma current (toroidal mode numbers n < 0). At lower magnetic field ≤0.45 T, a discrete spectrum of Compressional Alfvén Eigenmodes (CAEs) with n > 0 arises, in addition to the modes with n < 0. At lowest magnetic fields, the CAEs with n > 0 become dominant, they are observed in frequency range from ∼250 kHz for n=1 to ∼3.5 MHz for n=15, well above the on-axis ion cyclotron frequency (∼2.5 MHz). The data is interpreted in terms of normal and anomalous Doppler resonances modified by magnetic drift terms due to inhomogeneity and curvature of the magnetic field. A Hall MHD model is applied for computing the eigenfrequencies and the spatial mode structure of CAEs and a good agreement with the experimental frequencies is found
[en] We investigate how the decision support system ‘Modular Evaluation Method Subsurface Activities’ (MEMSA) can help facilitate an informed decision-making process for permit applications of subsurface activities. To this end, we analyze the extent the MEMSA approach allows for a dialogue between stakeholders in a transparent manner. We use the exploration permit for the underground gas storage facility at the Pieterburen salt dome (Netherlands) as a case study. The results suggest that the MEMSA approach is flexible enough to adjust to changing conditions. Furthermore, MEMSA provides a novel way for identifying structural problems and possible solutions in permit decision-making processes for subsurface activities, on the basis of the sensitivity analysis of intermediate rankings. We suggest that the planned size of an activity should already be specified in the exploration phase, because this would allow for a more efficient use of the subsurface as a whole. We conclude that the host community should be involved to a greater extent and in an early phase of the permit decision-making process, for example, already during the initial analysis of the project area of a subsurface activity. We suggest that strategic national policy goals are to be re-evaluated on a regular basis, in the form of a strategic vision for the subsurface, to account for timing discrepancies between the realization of activities and policy deadlines, because this discrepancy can have a large impact on the necessity and therefore acceptance of a subsurface activity.
[en] This chapter discusses the role that energy storage may have on the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of energy storage, thermal energy storage including sensible heat storage, latent heat storage, thermochemical heat storage, and seasonal heat storage, electricity storage including batteries, pumped hydroelectric storage, compressed air energy storage, and superconducting magnetic energy storage, and production and combustion of hydrogen as an energy storage option