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[en] We review the methods of constructing confidence intervals that account for a priori information about one-sided constraints on the parameter being estimated. We show that the so-called method of sensitivity limit yields a correct solution of the problem. Derived are the solutions for the cases of a continuous distribution with non-negative estimated parameter and a discrete distribution, specifically a Poisson process with background. For both cases, the best upper limit is constructed that accounts for the a priori information. A table is provided with the confidence intervals for the parameter of Poisson distribution that correctly accounts for the information on the known value of the background along with the software for calculating the confidence intervals for any confidence levels and magnitudes of the background (the software is freely available for download via Internet).
[en] The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief introduction of Software Dependability and a summary of lessons learned. The components of Software Dependability vary among standards, however there is agreement among the standards that reliability, availability and maintainability are some the main components of dependability. Safety is also a main component is safety systems. Although reliability and safety are similar there is an additional difference, safety can withstand some level of fault tolerance. For the purposes of this discussion Software Dependability includes reliability, availability, maintainability and safety. Software Dependability: Trustworthiness of a computer system such that reliance can be justifiably placed on the service it delivers. Reliability, availability, and maintainability are aspects of dependability. Reliability: The ability of a system or component to perform its required functions under stated conditions for a specified period of time. Availability: The degree to which a system or component is operational and accessible when required for use. Often expressed as a probability. Maintainability: Speed and ease with which a program can be corrected or changed. Safety: a measure of the length of time the software system can be expected to run before failing in such a way as to cause a system hazard. (author)
[en] Green behavior is an important part of the study of green development. To promote green development, it is necessary to engage in further innovation on the basis of lessons from international advancements in green behavior. To clarify the spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of international researchers in the study of green behavior, the research focus, and the research frontiers, a visual analysis was performed on 22,114 articles cited in the SSCI and SCI-EXPANDED databases from 2000 to 2017. This analysis was based on bibliometrics and mapping knowledge domain (MKD) analysis with CiteSpace 5.3.R4, a scientific and technological text-mining and visualization software. The results show that international green behavior research has the following main characteristics. First, a positive correlation was found between the number of papers and time. Second, research is highly valued by researchers in the natural sciences, such as ecology. The USA is involved in major research efforts and maintains a high level of cooperation with other countries and regions. International cooperation among institutions needs to be strengthened. The co-cited journals are primarily academic journals in the natural sciences. Third, research hotspots mainly focus on the theory of planned behavior (TPB), consumers, attitudes, performance, and environment, all of which evolve according to the phase path of “germination-growth.” Fourth, the research frontier issues are largely related to management science and environmental science, and the research objects and methods will become increasingly complex and interdisciplinary over time.
[en] This paper reports the printability and thermo-mechanical investigations of poly-lactic acid-polyether ketone-ketone- hydroxyapatite-chitosan (PLA-PEKK-HAp-CS) based functional prototypes printed with commercial fused deposition modelling (FDM) setup (without any alteration in software/hardware configuration). The in-house prepared feed stock filament comprising of PLA-PEKK-HAp-CS was used to print flexural samples as per ASTM D790. The samples prepared were investigated for flexural strength (on universal tensile testing (UTM) setup), thermal stability (on differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) setup) followed by morphological analysis (based upon metallurgical image analysis software for porosity evaluation as per ASTM B276). The results of study suggest that from flexural strength viewpoint for PLA-PEKK-HAp-CS based functional prototypes: infill density/percentage followed by infill speed is significant printing parameter. The predicted maximum flexural strength (26.3 MPa) and experimental results (26.17 MPa) are in line to each other and results are valid at 95% confidence level. The best settings of FDM printer from peak strength view point are 100% infill density/percentage, 50 mm s−1 infill speed and 4 no. of perimeters. Further in present case study it has been observed that samples prepared with low infill percentage posses better thermal stability and modulus of toughness as compared to samples prepared with high infill percentage. (paper)
[en] A complex hardware/software system and geometrical control methods developed by the authors for controlling both the main components and the final assembly of the ATLAS hadron tile calorimeter are described. The developed system has been employed at all stages of the construction that provided high design precision in assembling the world’s largest experimental high-energy physics facility.
[en] Some recently developed brain-dedicated positron emission tomography (PET) scanners measure subjects in a sitting position. Sitting enables PET scanning under more natural conditions for the subjects and also helps with making the scanners smaller. It is unclear, however, how much the degree of head motion when sitting differs from the supine posture commonly employed in clinical PET. In this report, we describe development of a markerless and contactless head motion tracking system and a study of healthy volunteers in several different postures to determine the optimum posture for brain PET. We used Kinect® (Microsoft) and developed software that can measure head motion with about 1 mm (translation) and less than 1° (rotation) accuracy. In the volunteer study, we measured the amount of head motion, with and without head fixation, in supine, normal sitting, and reclining postures. The results indicated that the normal sitting posture without head fixation had the largest head movement, and that the reclining and supine postures were similarly effective for minimizing head movement (average head movement of about 0.5 mm during 1 min). We also visualized the influence that head motion had on images for each pose by simulating the actual motions obtained from the volunteer study using a digital Hoffman phantom. Comparisons with the original image showed that the extent to which motion was reduced in the reclining and supine postures were quantitatively equivalent. The head motions of the volunteer studies were also reproduced using a mannequin head on a motorized stage to assess how well the proposed motion measurement system worked when used for motion correction. The results indicated that even though the system improved image quality for all postures, the reclining and supine postures could provide better image quality than the normal sitting posture. (paper)
[en] NJOY21 is an initiative at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to develop software to succeed the NJOY nuclear data processing system. Specifically, the aim of the project is to provide: - a stand-alone executable for nuclear data processing in the vein of the original NJOY and, - a hierarchy of reusable loosely-coupled, object-oriented component libraries. The name NJOY21 was chosen to denote a commitment to provide software suitable for the 21. Century; integrating modern development practices and tools from the inception of the project. This summary will expand upon the current goals and design of the project. Before going onto discuss NJOY21, it is worthwhile to briefly establish the historical context and motivating factors. (authors)
[en] MatCloud provides a high-throughput computational materials infrastructure for the integrated management of materials simulation, data, and computing resources. In comparison to AFLOW, Material Project, and NoMad, MatCloud delivers two-fold functionalities: a computational materials platform where users can do on-line job setup, job submission and monitoring only via Web browser, and a materials properties simulation database. It is developed under Chinese Materials Genome Initiative and is a China own proprietary high-throughput computational materials infrastructure. MatCloud has been on line for about one year, receiving considerable registered users, feedbacks, and encouragements. Many users provided valuable input and requirements to MatCloud. In this paper, we describe the present MatCloud, future visions, and major challenges. Based on what we have achieved, we will endeavour to further develop MatCloud in an open and collaborative manner and make MatCloud a world known China-developed novel software in the pressing area of high-throughput materials calculations and materials properties simulation database within Material Genome Initiative. (topical review)
[en] Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimation by plasma sampling method is considered as the gold standard. However, this method is not widely used because the complex technique and cumbersome calculations coupled with the lack of availability of user-friendly software. The routinely used Serum Creatinine method (SrCrM) of GFR estimation also requires the use of online calculators which cannot be used without internet access. We have developed user-friendly software “GFR estimation software” which gives the options to estimate GFR by plasma sampling method as well as SrCrM. We have used Microsoft Windows® as operating system and Visual Basic 6.0 as the front end and Microsoft Access® as database tool to develop this software. We have used Russell's formula for GFR calculation by plasma sampling method. GFR calculations using serum creatinine have been done using MIRD, Cockcroft-Gault method, Schwartz method, and Counahan-Barratt methods. The developed software is performing mathematical calculations correctly and is user-friendly. This software also enables storage and easy retrieval of the raw data, patient's information and calculated GFR for further processing and comparison. This is user-friendly software to calculate the GFR by various plasma sampling method and blood parameter. This software is also a good system for storing the raw and processed data for future analysis