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[en] From the point of view of cost control, what would be the optimal change in the electricity mix from 2020 to 2060 in order to ensure the right balance between hourly supply and demand? That is the question addressed by the ADEME (the French energy and environment agency) in work carried out in 2017 and 2018, based on an optimisation model that would minimise the total cost of the system over several decades. They show that, over the relevant time horizon, a number of major international trends will combine to significantly structure the national mix: a widespread reduction in the cost of renewables, an increase in inter-connectivity, and technological solutions for managing use. By anticipating these developments, it will be possible to raise public awareness and maximise the resulting benefits for the entire country
[fr]Sous l'angle de la maitrise des couts de revient, quelle serait la trajectoire optimale d'evolution du mix electrique, entre 2020 et 2060, assurant l'equilibre offre/demande horaire? C'est a cette question que l'ADEME a souhaite repondre par des travaux menes en 2017 et 2018, fondes sur un modele d'optimisation capable de minimiser le cout total du systeme sur plusieurs decennies. Ils montrent qu'a cet horizon de temps, certaines tendances majeures, d'ampleur internationale, se conjugueront pour structurer significativement les mix nationaux: baisse generalisee des couts des EnR, interconnexions renforcees et solutions technologiques de pilotabilite des usages. Anticiper ces evolutions permet d'eclairer le debat public pour mieux les accompagner et en maximiser les benefices pour la collectivite nationale
[en] The International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) is an intergovernmental organisation, initiated and led by Germany, which, as its name suggests, promotes renewable energy. Similar to the Paris-based International Energy Agency (IEA), it serves as a platform for international cooperation, a centre of excellence and a knowledge repository for renewable energy policy, technology, resources and financing. IRENA announces its support for all forms of renewable energy (bio-energy, geothermal, hydropower, marine, and of course solar and wind energy). Although it is not a United Nations body, IRENA brings together 160 countries to encourage their governments to adopt enabling policies for renewable energy investments and provide practical tools and policy advice to accelerate their deployment. The ultimate goal is to facilitate knowledge sharing and technology transfer to provide clean and sustainable energy to the world's growing population. Founded in Bonn on 26 January 2009, where it has a technology centre, it is now based in Abu Dhabi. Funded by governments, it mainly produces statistical and technical documents, such as cost-benefit studies and data sheets for each type of renewable energy. In January 2019, it published a report entitled 'A New World - The geopolitics of the Energy Transformation', which cannot fail to attract the attention of anyone concerned about the world's progress
[fr]L'International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) est une organisation intergouvernementale voulue et portee par l'Allemagne, destinee a promouvoir, comme son nom l'indique, les energies renouvelables. Un peu a l'instar de l'Agence Internationale de l'energie (AIE) basee a Paris, elle sert de plate-forme de cooperation internationale, de centre d'excellence et de referentiel des connaissances en matiere de politique, de technologie, de ressources et financements pour les energies renouvelables. IRENA annonce etre en faveur de toutes les formes d'energies renouvelables (bioenergie, geothermie, hydroelectricite, marine, et bien entendu les energies solaire et eolienne). Bien qu'elle ne soit pas un organe des Nations unies, IRENA regroupe 160 pays, afin d'encourager les gouvernements de ceux-ci a adopter des politiques habilitantes pour les investissements dans les energies renouvelables, leur fournir des outils pratiques et des conseils politiques pour accelerer leur deploiement. Le but ultime est de faciliter le partage des connaissances et le transfert de technologie afin de fournir une energie propre et durable a la population croissante du monde. Fondee a Bonn le 26 janvier 2009, ou elle dispose d'un centre technologique, elle est basee aujourd'hui a Abu Dhabi. Financee par les gouvernements, elle produit essentiellement des documents de nature statistique et technique, telles des etudes cout-benefice et des fiches techniques pour chaque type d'energie renouvelable. Elle a publie en janvier 2019 un rapport dont le titre 'A New World - The geopolitics of the Energy Transformation' ('Un nouveau monde: La geopolitique de la transition energetique') ne peut manquer d'attirer l'attention de qui se preoccupe de la marche du monde
[en] ROSATOM's strategic goals: • An increase of our share on international markets; • Development of new products for the domestic and international markets; • Reduction of the cost of our products and the lead time
[en] This report proposes an overview of costs of photovoltaic installations of medium and high power (between 100 kWc and 30 MWc) developed within the frame of tenders in the French main land territory. After a presentation of methodological elements, the report addresses investment costs (general overview, connection, modules, converters, other electrical hardware, structures), exploitation costs and taxes (general overview, operation and maintenance costs, insurances, renting, electric power sale fees), financial aspects (project financing, expected profitabilities), and the global production cost (methodology, hypotheses for possible production, for costs, and for updating).
[en] Rare earth elements (REE) have become essential for our modern economy, in relation to the development of new energy and communication technologies. Depending on their technical economic efficiency and environmental footprint, hydrometallurgical processes enabling the recovery of separated elements could be of particular interest. Typically these processes include a first pre-treatment (crushing, milling and sieving) and an acidic leaching step (with eventual selective precipitation sub-steps), followed by a solvent extraction (SX) step aimed at the separation and purification of REE. Recently, diglycolamides (DGA) appeared as a very interesting group of extractants for the selective recovery of trivalent REE from nitric acid solutions, particularly in the presence of transition metal ions commonly found in various waste products. In this work, the TODGA extractant was successfully used for designing an efficient REE recovery process. The process integrates the mechanical and physico-chemical treatment of waste, followed by a solvent extraction step for the recovery and intra-separation of REE. Based on the experimental batch data, a phenomenological model has been elaborated taking into account the various distribution equilibria. The model has been implemented in our simulation code and used for calculation of various flowsheets, which have been tested at our pilot facility using compact continuous counter-current mixer-settlers. Experimental SX and modeling data allowing the recovery of >99.95% pure Dysprosium solution will be discussed in this paper. Preliminary technical-economic assessment and life-cycle analysis have also been conducted. Following this first successful demonstration, several novel dissymmetrical DGA have been developed and their solvent extraction behaviour in different acid media has been studied. Indeed, most processes use symmetrical DGA such as TODGA. The present work improves upon the classic design and demonstrates that novel dissymmetrical extractants display a remarkable improvement on REE extraction efficiency compared to reference TODGA in various acid media. Furthermore, the REE separation factors towards major impurities such as Fe3+ are substantially enhanced. The development of novel DGA with increased efficiency paves the way for the recovery and separation of high value REE from different streams. This opens new market opportunities since the effluent treatment has often an important impact either in the CAPEX or the OPEX of a solvent extraction plant. With some DGA extractants adapted to sulfuric acid media, the resulting effluent treatment plant could be cheaper than it would be using nitric acid media. Furthermore, their enhanced performance at low concentration should reduce the price of reagents in the OPEX. (author)
[en] The requirements on product quality at all stages of the life cycle are analyzed. The characteristics on which requirements are imposed are noted. Common characteristics present at all stages of the life cycle are identified. It is found that the requirements on the common characteristics at different stages of the life cycle may be inconsistent. These requirements may effectively be reconciled if the requirements on the characteristics established at the operational stage are lowered.
[en] The average age of the French 900 MW reactors is 36 years. The big refit is the whole of works necessary to reach a 50 year long operating life. The big refit cost is estimated to reach 45 billions euros and it includes the usual maintenance (21 billions euros), the implementing of post-Fukushima measures, the upgrading of all 900 MW units and the cost of extra works required for a 10 year long extension of operating life. On a basis of a production of 400 TWh, the big refit cost represents an extra cost of 2.5 euros per MWh. Big refit is already beneficial as the present total production cost of nuclear power reaches 33 euros/MWh while the market price of electricity is around 45 euros/MWh. (A.C.)
[en] The formation of safety culture requires an attempt to exert constructive influence on the sociopsychological atmosphere of the team and the behaviour of individual employees. By creating a value system for the organization’s staff, as part of its general organizational culture, it may be possible to forecast, plan and promote the desired behaviour. However, it is also necessary to take into account the corporate culture of the organization. Leaders often try to establish a safety culture, where progressive values and behavioural norms are declared, but the results obtained are not those expected. This may be because those values and norms come into conflict with the reality and, therefore, are actively rejected by many members of the organization. The theory of generations developed by the US scientists Howe and Strauss helps in the analysis and consideration of the staff values formed under the influence of many different factors. The development of safety culture may depend, among other things, on the age of the employees involved. (author)