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[en] According to the French Court of Auditors, the production cost of nuclear power reached 60 euros/MWh in 2013 while it had been 50 euros/MWh in 2010. This sharp increase (+20% in 3 years) is explained by 3 reasons. First the investment for maintenance have increased because of the ageing of the plants and of post-Fukushima safety upgrading. Secondly, there has been a very strong increase in operational costs due to hiring skilled labour to cope with maintenance works and thirdly a decrease in annual production of nuclear power. The operating life extension of plants has a reduced impact on the operational cost of the plant itself while the impact on the rentability of nuclear assets is important. The Court of Auditors estimates the production cost at 61.6 euros/MWh for the 2011-2025 period and for a 50-year long operating life. Because of higher costs in construction, the cost of 'new nuclear' is estimated by ADEME to be 80 euros/MWh, it is worth noting that EDF foresees a selling price of 106 euros/MWh for the EPR at Hinkley Point plant. (A.C.)
[en] Malaysia has great diversity of edible mushrooms. Volvariella volvacea is also known as Paddy straw mushroom and/or Palm mushroom has a great potential for commercialization. This species is commonly grown in tropical climate and also known as Asian Button Mushroom. Volvariella volvacea is a short cycle mushroom and easy to grow on any cellulosic agriculture waste such as empty fruit bunch (EFB), paddy straw, sugar cane, cassava leaf etc. In this paper, a low cost cultivation of Volvariella volvacea mushroom on EFB will be described. Fresh EFB from palm oil factory was compost for 10 days by covering the EFB with thick plastic canvas and flush with water at least three times during the composting period (Composting Process). Beds were prepared by using EFB (3 x 15 feet), flush with water and step on EFB to provide more space in expending mycelium. Volvariella substrate seedling was immediately sowed on the EFB surface bedding. Plastic canvas was covered completely onto each sowed EFB bed for 10 days (Spawning Process, 35-40 degree Celsius). Loop made by bamboo where then attached to the bed and again covered by the plastic canvas for another 10 days (Pinning Process, 28-35 degree Celsius). It takes a total of 30 days from the compost to emerge mushroom fruiting body. It is important to monitor the temperature (28-35 degree Celsius) and high humidity (>80 %) throughout all process. Harvesting can be made twice a day and the average of each bed is approximately 200 g. (author)
[en] The technical ability to decommission NPPs shut down after normal operation has been well- demonstrated. However, concerns remain about the ability to accurately calculate and demonstrate the validity of decommissioning cost estimates, and to control costs during de-commissioning. This paper describes recent international guidance on quality cost estimates for nuclear decommissioning projects, and explores the potential added value that could be attained through more systematic analysis and reporting of decommissioning project costs. Published international guidance from the OECD Nuclear Energy and the International Atomic Energy Agency establish a good basis for producing comprehensive and high-quality cost estimates for nuclear decommissioning projects. The latest such guidance, from September 2017, aims at enabling a consistent and comprehensive treatment of risk and uncertainty in the preparation of decommissioning cost estimates. There is increasing attention on under-standing variations between cost estimates and apparent escalation of decommissioning costs. A systematic analysis of actual decommissioning project costs in relation to the cost estimates would be expected to yield valuable insights about key cost drivers in actual de-commissioning projects, and the extent to which current cost estimates accurately capture and reflect these. (authors)
[en] The issue of decommissioning cost estimate uncertainty has returned to plague the industry. As we gain more hands-on experience, the expectations are that the cost estimates for future projects should be more accurate and the uncertainties reduced. To some extent this is true, but there remains the issue of how to deal with the major elements of uncertainty of allowances, contingency and risk. The OECD/NEA and the IAEA have joined forces through its member states and outside consultants to bring definition and insight into how to deal with uncertainty. The author has been a participant in this joint organization effort since the outset two years ago. This paper will present the current state-of-the-art in the definitions, approaches, and limitations in the topic of uncertainty. (authors)
[en] Decommissioning information in the various fields (decommissioning legal regulatory requirements, facility characteristics information, radiation / performance information, radioactive waste management, radiation protection, etc.) related to decommissioning is generated during decommissioning for nuclear facilities, from permanent shutdown to site restoration. Since a vast amount of information is generated and this information is used for important factors such as waste management and cost estimation, it is necessary to manage information systematically and accurately. Various management systems have been developed so far, but they are used and managed independently as various systems, which limits the complexity and information management. In order to overcome this problem, we intend to develop an integrated management system by securing the connection between existing program unit information in the current research. In this study, main process functions are implemented to efficiently manage the necessary information in the decommissioning process of nuclear facilities based on existing conceptual design and framework design. In order to systematically and accurately manage related information generated during decommissioning of nuclear facilities, we have developed a methodology for estimating decommissioning costs based on the results of existing framework design phases. In addition, it can be applied to various types of nuclear facilities by connecting facility characteristics information and decommissioning cost evaluation function based on database which can easily utilize and expand information with the aim of implementing the functions necessary to calculate decommissioning waste quantity and basic decommissioning cost calculation.
[en] ROSATOM's strategic goals: • An increase of our share on international markets; • Development of new products for the domestic and international markets; • Reduction of the cost of our products and the lead time
[en] This paper can manage data generated during the dismantling of KRR2 (Korean research reactor, TRIGA Mark-III) and calculate the amount of dismantled waste, derive worker productivity factors, and utilize these factors to assess the costs of dismantling and evaluate the decommissioning process in advance. Using data generated from dismantling research reactors and conversion facilities, the dismantling engineering integration system was developed that can evaluate and predict significant factors such as the reduction of dismantling facilities and prediction of unit work productivity factors, cost of dismantling, and calculation of dismantling processes. The calculated decommissioning productivity values can be used as a basis for inferring the plant's decommissioning productivity values, and since the plant has been programmed to provide the cost assessment results for dismantling operations by applying the actual government labor cost per dismantling operation
[en] This report proposes an overview of costs of photovoltaic installations of medium and high power (between 100 kWc and 30 MWc) developed within the frame of tenders in the French main land territory. After a presentation of methodological elements, the report addresses investment costs (general overview, connection, modules, converters, other electrical hardware, structures), exploitation costs and taxes (general overview, operation and maintenance costs, insurances, renting, electric power sale fees), financial aspects (project financing, expected profitabilities), and the global production cost (methodology, hypotheses for possible production, for costs, and for updating).
[en] The hourly operating cost of equipment provides an assessment of its operational efficiency, in monetary terms. Often, enterprises need to assess product quality. By the proposed method, without complex cost/benefit calculations, the proportion of the cost corresponding to each piece of equipment in a production system may be calculated simply on the basis of the labor intensity of machining and the operational efficiency OEE of the equipment. It is also useful for managers and workers to know the cost of an hour of downtime for particular equipment and to understand the losses in the shop and the enterprise as a whole. Such awareness assists in loss prevention.