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[en] From the point of view of cost control, what would be the optimal change in the electricity mix from 2020 to 2060 in order to ensure the right balance between hourly supply and demand? That is the question addressed by the ADEME (the French energy and environment agency) in work carried out in 2017 and 2018, based on an optimisation model that would minimise the total cost of the system over several decades. They show that, over the relevant time horizon, a number of major international trends will combine to significantly structure the national mix: a widespread reduction in the cost of renewables, an increase in inter-connectivity, and technological solutions for managing use. By anticipating these developments, it will be possible to raise public awareness and maximise the resulting benefits for the entire country
[fr]Sous l'angle de la maitrise des couts de revient, quelle serait la trajectoire optimale d'evolution du mix electrique, entre 2020 et 2060, assurant l'equilibre offre/demande horaire? C'est a cette question que l'ADEME a souhaite repondre par des travaux menes en 2017 et 2018, fondes sur un modele d'optimisation capable de minimiser le cout total du systeme sur plusieurs decennies. Ils montrent qu'a cet horizon de temps, certaines tendances majeures, d'ampleur internationale, se conjugueront pour structurer significativement les mix nationaux: baisse generalisee des couts des EnR, interconnexions renforcees et solutions technologiques de pilotabilite des usages. Anticiper ces evolutions permet d'eclairer le debat public pour mieux les accompagner et en maximiser les benefices pour la collectivite nationale
[en] The International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) is an intergovernmental organisation, initiated and led by Germany, which, as its name suggests, promotes renewable energy. Similar to the Paris-based International Energy Agency (IEA), it serves as a platform for international cooperation, a centre of excellence and a knowledge repository for renewable energy policy, technology, resources and financing. IRENA announces its support for all forms of renewable energy (bio-energy, geothermal, hydropower, marine, and of course solar and wind energy). Although it is not a United Nations body, IRENA brings together 160 countries to encourage their governments to adopt enabling policies for renewable energy investments and provide practical tools and policy advice to accelerate their deployment. The ultimate goal is to facilitate knowledge sharing and technology transfer to provide clean and sustainable energy to the world's growing population. Founded in Bonn on 26 January 2009, where it has a technology centre, it is now based in Abu Dhabi. Funded by governments, it mainly produces statistical and technical documents, such as cost-benefit studies and data sheets for each type of renewable energy. In January 2019, it published a report entitled 'A New World - The geopolitics of the Energy Transformation', which cannot fail to attract the attention of anyone concerned about the world's progress
[fr]L'International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) est une organisation intergouvernementale voulue et portee par l'Allemagne, destinee a promouvoir, comme son nom l'indique, les energies renouvelables. Un peu a l'instar de l'Agence Internationale de l'energie (AIE) basee a Paris, elle sert de plate-forme de cooperation internationale, de centre d'excellence et de referentiel des connaissances en matiere de politique, de technologie, de ressources et financements pour les energies renouvelables. IRENA annonce etre en faveur de toutes les formes d'energies renouvelables (bioenergie, geothermie, hydroelectricite, marine, et bien entendu les energies solaire et eolienne). Bien qu'elle ne soit pas un organe des Nations unies, IRENA regroupe 160 pays, afin d'encourager les gouvernements de ceux-ci a adopter des politiques habilitantes pour les investissements dans les energies renouvelables, leur fournir des outils pratiques et des conseils politiques pour accelerer leur deploiement. Le but ultime est de faciliter le partage des connaissances et le transfert de technologie afin de fournir une energie propre et durable a la population croissante du monde. Fondee a Bonn le 26 janvier 2009, ou elle dispose d'un centre technologique, elle est basee aujourd'hui a Abu Dhabi. Financee par les gouvernements, elle produit essentiellement des documents de nature statistique et technique, telles des etudes cout-benefice et des fiches techniques pour chaque type d'energie renouvelable. Elle a publie en janvier 2019 un rapport dont le titre 'A New World - The geopolitics of the Energy Transformation' ('Un nouveau monde: La geopolitique de la transition energetique') ne peut manquer d'attirer l'attention de qui se preoccupe de la marche du monde
[en] Evolving practice in adjuvant breast radiotherapy inevitably impacts healthcare budgets. This is reflected in a rise of health economic evaluations (HEE) in this domain. The available HEE literature was analysed qualitatively and quantitatively, using available instruments.
[en] The requirements on product quality at all stages of the life cycle are analyzed. The characteristics on which requirements are imposed are noted. Common characteristics present at all stages of the life cycle are identified. It is found that the requirements on the common characteristics at different stages of the life cycle may be inconsistent. These requirements may effectively be reconciled if the requirements on the characteristics established at the operational stage are lowered.
[en] This analysis presents the resources needed and costs at the present time globally and by region to give full access to RT. The variables and methodology were the same used by the GTFRCC. The GTFRCC reported the resources needed and costs to reach full access to RT in 2035 by income group, but not per region (Atun R et al. Expanding global access to radiotherapy. Lancet Oncol 2015; 16(10)). The division in regions adopted by the IAEA was used: Africa (AF), North America (NA) only includes USA and Canada, Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) includes Mexico, Asia-Pacific (AP) includes Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific islands, and all the post-Soviet states are included in Europe (EU). AP is bigger than all the other regions together in terms of population and also in terms of additional resources needed. The weighted GNI per capita is US$ 2,086 for AF, US$ 6,343 for AP, US$ 9,863 for LAC, US$ 25,225 for EU, and US$ 54,140 for NA. This is an important observation, as the scale of salaries and training costs used by the GTFRCC was fixed for each income group, but the reality shows that there are big differences between the same income group in different regions (Zubizarreta E et al. Analysis of global radiotherapy needs and costs by geographic region and income level. Clinical Oncology 2017, 29). According to IAEA-DIRAC there are 13,133 megavoltage machines worldwide, of which cobalt machines represent 15%, and the total number required is 16,666, but NA has near the double of machines needed. Assuming working days of 12 hs. AF covers 34% of its needs, AP 61%, EU 92%, and LAC 88%. Globally, 73% of the needs are covered worldwide.
[en] The TURPE (Price of Access to the Electric power Public Network) has been implemented in France with two main functions: to remunerate transport and distribution network managers, and to be a price signal for producers and consumers. These functions have been either cancelled or criticised. Beyond possible improvements, the authors show that this price could also be a lever for the development of smart grids in France through a proper exploitation of these functions
[en] In Canada, Radiation Therapy program hours have ranged between 8 and 10 hours a day. Some centres have an option of a 4-day, 10-hour-day workweek. In 2012, Cancer Care Ontario released their Radiation Treatment Capital Investment Strategy. In this, they mandated that in order to maximize the use of current infrastructure, cancer centres will need to be operational for 12 hours in the future. This strategy was supported by a cost-benefit analysis.