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[en] The era of near-room-temperature superconductivity started after experimental discovery by Drozdov et al (2015 Nature 525 73) who found that compressed H3S exhibits superconducting transition at T c = 203 K. To date, the record near-room-temperature superconductivity stands with another hydrogen-rich highly compressed compound, LaH10 (Somayazulu et al 2019 Phys. Rev. Lett. 122 027001), which has critical temperature of In this paper, we analyse available upper critical field, B c2(T), data for LaH10 (Drozdov et al 2019 Nature 569 528) and report that this compound in all considered scenarios has the ratio of T c to the Fermi temperature, T F, 0.009 < T c/T F < 0.038, which is typical range for unconventional superconductors. In attempt to extend our finding, we examined experimental B c2(T) data for superconductors in the palladium-hydrogen system and surprisingly find that PdHx compounds have the ratio of 0.008 < T c/T F < 0.012. Taking in account that H3S has the ratio of 0.012 < T c/T F < 0.039 (Talantsev 2019 Modern Phys. Lett. B 33 1950195) we come to conclusion that in the Uemura plot all discovered to date hydrogen-rich superconductors, i.e. PdHx, H3S and LaH10, lie in same band as all unconventional superconductors, particularly heavy fermions, fullerenes, pnictides, and cuprates, and former should be classified as a new class of unconventional superconductors. (paper)
[en] Less than two years after the discovery of high temperature superconductivity in oxypnictide LaFeAs(O, F) several families of superconductors based on Fe layers (1111, 122, 11, 111) are available. They share several characteristics with cuprate superconductors that compromise easy applications, such as the layered structure, the small coherence length and unconventional pairing. On the other hand, the Fe-based superconductors have metallic parent compounds and their electronic anisotropy is generally smaller and does not strongly depend on the level of doping, and the supposed order parameter symmetry is s-wave, thus in principle not so detrimental to current transmission across grain boundaries. From the application point of view, the main efforts are still devoted to investigate the superconducting properties, to distinguish intrinsic from extrinsic behaviors and to compare the different families in order to identify which one is the fittest for the quest for better and more practical superconductors. The 1111 family shows the highest Tc, huge but also the most anisotropic upper critical field and in-field, fan-shaped resistive transitions reminiscent of those of cuprates. On the other hand, the 122 family is much less anisotropic with sharper resistive transitions as in low temperature superconductors, but with about half the Tc of the 1111 compounds. An overview of the main superconducting properties relevant to applications will be presented. Upper critical field, electronic anisotropy parameter, and intragranular and intergranular critical current density will be discussed and compared, where possible, across the Fe-based superconductor families.
[en] We consider the superconducting transition in fermionic quantum critical systems. Assuming the validity of Migdal theorem, the gap equation can be written in terms of the retarded pair susceptibility. Instead of the usual BCS form, the pair susceptibility is now subject to scale invariance. The gap and transition temperature is thus of the algebraic form, totally different from the exponential behavior in BCS theory. Consequently, with reasonably small glue strength, we can get very large gap and transition temperature comparable to those discovered in cuprates. The ratio of the gap to retardation gets boosted by increasing retardation. We also find the upper critical field has a different scaling with the critical temperature. With a non-Lorentzian dynamical exponent, the upper critical field is greatly enhanced when approaching the critical point, though the critical temperature only changes modestly, in agreement with recent experiments on heavy fermions.
[en] This article presents an extensive study of the calculations performed in the configuration where the criticality safety is achieved by both controlling the mass of fissile material and the moderation (for example water) of a single unit. This case often occurs when the control of the fissile mass alone is not sufficient to economically or practically operate a process. This method is often used for the fuel fabrication where an important quantity of powder need to be handled but may also be met in other nuclear facilities and transportation. In this context, from a calculation point of view, a homogeneous distribution of the moderation within the fissile material is generally not a penalizing configuration. So a heterogeneous repartition of the moderation is then considered: it currently consists in a given part of the fissile material uniformly moderated by the entire quantity of the moderator, this system being surrounded by the rest of the dry fissile material and eventually another reflector (water, concrete, lead, etc.). This paper will firstly briefly discuss how to calculate safety limits for this kind of configuration, in the past and nowadays, using state-of-the-art algorithms. Then, new results will be presented for this kind of configuration with various enrichments and densities. These calculations show that the penalizing configuration depends on the maximum dry density of the fissile material considered. The new results obtained with high maximum dry densities are more restrictive than those previously presented.
[en] We report our studies on the crystal structures, morphologies, and superconductivity in CeO1-xFxFeAs compounds which were fabricated by solid state reaction. The crystal structures were refined using Rietveld refinement. Superconducting properties such as critical temperature (Tc), critical current density (Jc), and upper critical field (Hc2) were determined using magneto-transport and magnetic measurement over a wide range of temperature below Tc, and in magnetic fields up to 13 T. Jc is 2 x 103 A cm-2 for the x = 0.1 sample. However, the Jc exhibited a weak dependence on magnetic field for B > 1 T and T = 5 and 10 K. A peak effect in the Jc as a function of field was observed at 20 K in the x = 0.1 sample. We estimate Hc2ab of 185 T for CeO0.9F0.1FeAs compound. The broadening of the superconducting transition near Tc with increasing field can be well understood using the thermal activated flux flow model. The pinning potential scales as U0/KB∝B-n with n = 0.2 for B < 3 T and n = 0.71 for B > 3 T in the x = 0.1 sample.
[en] In this paper we present the results of critical current (I _c) measurements of MgB_2 wires made with two different set-ups of the four-point probe method: current sweep type—constant magnetic field and increasing current, and field sweep type—constant current and rapidly increasing magnetic field. Results from magnet field sweep type measurements can be interpreted by a new physical concept—a jump of the electric field in low magnetic fields. This physical concept can be correlated with damages in the Nb-barrier existing in the MgB_2 wire and be employed as a detection scheme. The damage in Nb barrier reduces critical current density (J _c) and complicates the study on critical temperature (T _c), upper critical field (B _c_2), irreversible magnetic field (B _i_r_r), pinning force (F _p), and pinning centers in superconducting MgB_2 wires. Our proposed method to detect damages in Nb barrier would benefit efforts in development and applications of MgB_2 wires. (paper)
[en] Single crystals of URu2-xRexSi2 have been grown via the Czochralski technique. Detailed electrical transport studies under pressure on single crystals of URu2Si2 confirm that the zero- temperature critical field is suppressed smoothly towards an extrapolated critical pressure of 15 kbar, which also corresponds to the accepted critical pressure of the hidden order phase. Improving on previous work on polycrystalline samples, studies of single crystals of URu2-xRexSi2 have provided more precise tracking of the suppression of both the hidden order phase at low doping and the ferromagnetic phase at intermediate Re concentrations
[en] We consider a Ginzburg-Landau model for superconductivity with a Chern-Simons term added. The flow diagram contains two charged fixed points corresponding to the tricritical and infrared stable fixed points. The topological coupling controls the fixed point structure and eventually the region of first order transitions disappears. We compute the critical exponents as a function of the topological coupling. We obtain that the value of the v exponent does not vary much from the XY value, vxy = 0.67. This shows that the Chern-Simons term does not affect considerably the XY scaling of superconductors. We discuss briefly the possible phenomenological applications of this model. (author)
[en] The extended thermodynamics of static charged AdS black holes in conformal gravity is analyzed. The P–V criticality of these black holes has some unusual features. There exists a single critical point with critical temperature T_c and critical pressure P_c. At fixed T>T_c (or at fixed P>P_c), there are two zeroth order phase transition points but no first order phase transition points. The systems favors large pressure states at constant T, or high temperature states at constant P
[en] The authors present measurements of critical currents and critical magnetic fields in cylindrical indium films. The most interesting result is that the ratio of the experimental critical current Ic1 to Silsbee's critical value Ic0 practically does not depend on temperature. This ratio was strongly dependent on the film thickness changing from Ic1 ∼0.18Ic0 for the film thickness d = 0.3 μm to Ic1 ∼ 1.3Ic0 for d = 5.5 μm. These results cannot be explained in the framework of the existing theoretical models