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[en] Another six years have passed and we are gathered together here again to discuss the results of much investigation and research, to assess the experience acquired in the course of those six years in the practical application of the discovery made a quarter of a century ago and to hazard a scientific forecast of future developments. Much has been done during the past six years. They have been years of intensive scientific research. During this period, physics and atomic technology have recorded substantial advances in all the fundamental disciplines of nuclear physics - in the fields of low-energy physics, plasma physics and high-energy physics. In the field of low-energy physics, considerable attention is currently being given to work on the practical application of the nuclear fission reaction. In research laboratories, ways of increasing the efficiency of plant and equipment are being studied, the accuracy of specific data indispensable for engineering and design calculations is being improved, means the way in which this was being done in one or two developing countries. A theme of much interest also was the possibility of nuclear energy for combined production of electricity and desalted water. Prospecting mining and treatment of uranium and thorium were discussed, and a general session was devoted to progress in research on controlled thermonuclear fusion. The programme provided for only limited references to radioisotopes, which had been discussed recently at a number of specialized symposia and conferences. Two general sessions were therefore devoted to survey papers describing the applications of radioisotopes in industry, the physical sciences, the life sciences and radiobiology. During the conference, a governmental scientific exhibition was held, in which eighteen governments took part. The bulk of this research is directed towards practical ends, because the fission reaction serves as the basis for atomic power engineering, for the construction of atomic power plants. Today, there is no longer any doubt that-atomic reactors can be put to practical use to generate electricity
[en] Technical assistance is today a widespread activity. Large numbers of persons with special qualifications in the applied sciences go to the developing countries to work on specific research and development projects, as do educationists on Fulbright or other programmes - usually to teach elementary or intermediate courses. But I believe that until now it has been rare for a person primarily interested in fundamental research to go to one of these countries to help build up advanced education and pure research work. Having recently returned from such an assignment, and having found it a most stimulating and enlightening experience, I feel moved to urge strongly upon others who may be in a position to do so that they should seek similar experience themselves. The first step is to show that advanced education and fundamental research are badly needed in the under-developed countries.
[en] Some of the more important isotope applications, especially those which are or can be profitably introduced in the developing countries, are reviewed. The use of radioisotopes in industry, medicine, agriculture, and hydrology is discussed
[en] The main concepts motivating the decision to establish an international agency for peaceful uses of atomic energy are presented in the paper. They consists of: 1) co-ordination in the fields of safety field, legal liability and safeguards; 2) ensuring that scientific and technical data are made freely accessible on a worldwide scale and 3) assisting the developing countries in benefiting from this new science and technology and use the atomic energy for economic and social development
[en] More and more nuclear power reactors are coming into operation in different parts of the world. In June 1962, 19 power stations utilizing five reactor types with a total capacity of 1600 MW were in operation in six countries. By the end of this year there are expected to be 55 stations in ten countries with a total capacity of 4500 MW. In another three years the total capacity is likely to go up to 9500 MW, and at the end of the present decade to 15 000 - 18 000 MW. Many developing countries are interested in determining the most advantageous time for starting power reactor programmes. The data required for such a decision cannot be summarized in a single document, but some guidance in the analysis and interpretation of such data can be obtained from a consideration of the technical status of different power reactors, their cost aspects, the materials required for nuclear power production, and the steps to be taken by a country interested in a nuclear power programme. The power reactors to be considered may be divided into three broad categories: (a) those already in commercial use, (b) those considered promising for the near future, and (c) those based on advanced concepts, whose suitability for industrial use still needs extensive technological and experimental development
[en] The performance of electronic instruments is often affected by climatic conditions prevailing in tropical regions. This constitutes a special problem in atomic energy operations, including the widespread applications of radioisotopes, in which electronic instruments play a vital role. On the one hand, these sensitive devices are at present manufactured only in a limited number of countries, mostly with temperate climates, and on the other hand, many of the developing countries which need these instruments are situated in tropical regions. The Agency convened a meeting of consultants examine the problem and make recommendations as to the technical specifications of nuclear electronic instruments for use in tropical countries. Largely based on these recommendations, a document has now been prepared for providing general guidance to the Agency when purchasing equipment for supply to tropical countries. Some of the main specifications set forth in this document, as well as the considerations underlying them, are briefly summarized in this article
[en] Nuclear instruments are used in almost every phase of atomic energy work, from assessing health hazards and prospecting for nuclear materials to plant control and nuclear physics experiments. The demands on nucleonic instrumentation are growing steadily. High-energy particle physics need such instruments for measuring extremely short times; in various research experiments most advanced electronic systems are required; and routine applications of radioisotopes call for more reliable instruments for automated counting facilities. In order to give designers and users of nuclear instrumentation an opportunity to discuss the research results and to exchange information on recent developments and new designs, the International Atomic Energy Agency, in co-operation with the Federal Nuclear Energy Commission of Yugoslavia, organized a Conference on Nuclear Electronics which was held in Belgrade from 15-20 May 1961. It was attended by more than 300 scientists from nearly 30 countries and five international organizations. Over 150 papers were read and discussed. As the field of nuclear electronics has expanded considerably, it was impossible to discuss all aspects of nuclear electronics in one series of meetings. Included in the main topics were radiation detectors, electronic circuitry in conventional and fast-pulse techniques and advanced electronic systems used in nuclear research. The Proceedings presented in these volumes contain the full records of the Conference, including discussions. The present state of technique, together with current trends and developments, are outlined. Of particular value should be the world-wide survey on progress recently made in such fields as those connected with semiconductor detectors, spark counters, luminescence chambers and fast electronic facilities for nuclear physics research. Together with the Proceedings of the Symposium on the same subject held in Paris and also published by the International Atomic Energy Agency, these volumes offer reference materials very useful to scientists and engineers directly engaged in the development and design of nuclear electronic instruments, as well as to all those who use these instruments in their research and routine work-in developed as well as developing countries.