Results 1 - 10 of 4722
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[en] A network of dosimetry laboratories coordinated by the IAEA and the World Health Organization is helping experts to ensure that radiation doses reliably meet international standards and are safe and effective. IAEA safety standards play a central role in helping health authorities to set up cancer care services. Innovative and cost-effective educational tools developed by the IAEA help countries to move beyond limitations of geography and funding to build up a highly trained national pool of specialists, such as radiation oncologists and medical physicists. Access to cancer care requires the establishment of effective national cancer control systems. Supporting countries in offering comprehensive cancer care and improved radiotherapy services to an increasing number of patients became a key strategic goal of the IAEA. (author)
[en] Clinical Nuclear medicine applications are growing very fast in the world. The great impact of nuclear medicine in the management of major health problems is becoming evident and visible. Many hospitals in developing countries, public and private, are interested more than before by installing a department of nuclear medicine. The approach in developing countries for supporting the expansion of nuclear medicine should be adapted to the new contest taking in consideration the development of radiopharmacy and the availability of new radiopharmaceuticals. Classically radiopharmacy in developing was limited to “hot lab” where basics preparations of technetium 99m radiolabelled cold kits are done sometimes in hot cells when available. Today those infrastructures are no longer appropriate and do not fit with the increase of clinical needs expressed daily in hospitals. This situation requires to educate train and recruit a radiopharmacist. The main responsibility of the radiopharmacist or “radiopharmaceutical scientist” in nuclear medicine is the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals to ensure their safety and efficacy. They are also responsible for the quality of the product which is essential to increase the impact on patient management through a correct interpretation of the results of the investigation, or the delivery of the correct therapeutic dose. There is a considerable scope for research and development in the field of radiopharmaceutical science. Also, the infrastructure should be adapted to the new requirements with appropriate drawing, air circulation, staff education and trackability of gross products and radiopharmaceuticals including clinical aspects. (author)
[en] The economies of most developing countries, largely depends on a stable and abundant supply of mineral resources and affordable energy supply. Following an airborne radiometric survey in the country, by the Department of Mines and Geology, a number of radioactive anomalies were delineated, in areas such as Chesikaki, Masaba and Cheptais. However, ground follow up surveys have not been conducted to determine the spatial distribution and the extent of occurrence of these minerals to date. This study was conducted in Cheptais area of Mt. Elgon region, specifically, to determine thorium-232 and uranium-238 radioactivity levels and to estimate the radiological hazard indices associated with these radionuclides. The study also determined the elemental content distribution of other potential minerals for economic development and the associated radiation hazard indices. The radiometric survey was done using an ionizing radiation meter, RSKB-104 to measure gamma radiation field equivalent dose rate in the sampled areas. Five readings were recorded at each sampled site. A heat map was then generated from the radiometric measurements to show the variation of background radiation levels. In addition, a total of thirty-six (36) soil samples and seven (7) rock samples were evaluated for mineral elements contents, using AMPTEK Experimenters’ Kit Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer. Prior to measurements, these samples were crushed, homogenized and left to achieve secular equilibrium for approximately two months. The results of elemental content analysis indicate, two major constituents in the soil samples; potassium(K) and iron(Fe) recorded mean concentration 15,498 μg/g (1,972 μg/g – 289,800 μg/g) and 116,457 μg/g (236 μg/g – 37,166 μg/g), respectively. The other trace constituents included manganese, copper, zinc, lead, uranium and thorium. From the activity concentration measurements, it was established that, 40K was the greatest contributor to radiation exposure with a mean activity concentration of 553 ± 11 Bq kg-1 (65.5%), 232Th and 238U at 215 Bq kg-1 (25.4%) and 76 Bq kg-1 (9.1%), respectively and all, exceed the UNSCEAR global mean of 400, 30 and 35 Bq kg-1 respectively. The radium equivalent values ranged between 32 – 1401 Bq kg-1, with a mean of 425.91 Bq kg-1; which is significantly higher than the world average of 160 Bq kg-1 and the UNSCEAR permissible limit of 350 Bq kg-1. In addition, associated radiation hazards indices; gamma radiation index, Iyr, the external hazard index, Hex and the internal hazard index, Hin, were determined to be 3.03, 1.15 and 1.36, respectively, all exceeded the required index of unity (≤1). The results of the statistical data analysis indicate a weak positive correlation between uranium-238 and potassium-40 (R2=0.1692) and between uranium-238 and thorium-232 (R2=0.52). However, there was a negative correlation between thorium-232 and potassium-40 (R2= - 0.1805). There is a significant difference in the variation of activity concentration levels between each of the naturally occurring radio nuclides; 232Th and 238U, 238U and 40K and 232Th and 40K. The absorbed dose rates (DR) due to gamma radiations in air, 1 m above the ground, was determined to have a mean of 198.5 nGy/h and exceeds the world average of 57 nGy/h. The annual effective dose with an outdoor occupancy factor of 0.4, assumed, had a mean value of 0.48 mSv/y, and is below the worldwide mean annual effective dose of 0.5 mSv yr-1. In conclusion, the radioactivity levels in most parts of Cheptais area of Mt. Elgon region in Bungoma County, currently, do not pose health risks to the public. However, the central part of the study area requires further studies to ascertain the level of risks posed by elevated background radiation readings that were recorded in the study area. This study complements the existing pool of knowledge in the area of mineral explorations and radio-ecological studies in the country. (author)
[en] Nuclear newcomer countries facing a number of key challenges in infrastructure development, e.g. they have no Intelligent Transportation Systems. Therefore, one of the challenges is the safety and security of nuclear materials during transportation, storing and disposing. Where, nuclear and radiological terrorism continues to be a worldwide concern as the nature of security threats evolves. This paper tries to solve that challenge by design and implement of an embedded system for nuclear materials cask. This system is suitable for developing countries, where it is cost effective and it uses the existing infrastructure. By using GPS, GSM/GPRS and microcontroller, the embedded system will enable the responsible bodies to remotely and continuously; tracking, monitoring and inspection of nuclear materials casks; during transportation, storing and disposing. The ORJGEN code is used to calculate the thermal and radioactivity loads of the cask. The application of this system allows the rapid intervention of the concerned bodies, which will prevent many accidents, in particular those caused by terrorists, like stealing or dispersing of nuclear materials.
[en] Conclusion: • To join hands with other member states to build up a stronger defense of nuclear security and safety, to ensure the nuclear energy is developed sustainably and plays more important roles in fighting against the global climate change. • To support the IAEA’s central role in international cooperation and exchange in areas of nuclear security and safety, and encourages IAEA to help developing countries build up nuclear security capacity and improve nuclear safety level. • To share knowledge, experience and good practice on nuclear security and safety with other member states with the platforms such as SNSTC/COE.
[en] The main goal of our work is to create e-learning platform for master students (pharmacist, chemist, biologist physicist, physician and other with academic postgraduate diploma) and post graduate degree (PGD) for technologists working in the field of radiopharmacy and nuclear medicine. Basic education in radiopharmacy is an essential component of the scientific and technical background of a radiopharmacist and the inescapable route by which quality assurance in radiopharmacy can be implemented. The purpose of this study was to evaluate e-learning as a method to improve worldwide education in radiopharmacy and increase the awareness about concepts pertaining the quality of radiopharmaceuticals. To establish an e-learning platform designed as an innovative learning apparatus that, working alongside conventional teaching methods, integrates education in all aspects of radiopharmacy into the curricula being offered by universities at existing education and training institutions is the next step forward to the global recognition of the unified standards.
[en] While advances in technology are making it possible to access sustainable, affordable and reliable energy – UN Sustainable Development Goal 7 (SDG 7) – 41 percent of the world’s population still lacks access to energy. SDG 7 is falling behind its target for universal energy access by 20301. This paper will examine small modular reactors (SMRs) to support developing countries in meeting SDG 7 targets and present a roadmap to deploy SMRs to increase access to energy and economic development, while also mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. The limits of grid capacity and relevant infrastructures, which are challenges in developing countries, will be addressed in consideration of the deployment of nuclear power. Grid capacity in most of the African countries ranges from 200-4,000 MW. Therefore, the limited capacity is not suitable for large-scale nuclear power reactors. Furthermore, these countries are embarking on programmes of rural electrification using a mix of energy sources (hydro, thermal, renewables, etc.). In consideration of limitations, costs and implementation, SMRs that provide a smaller range of energy have the potential to play an impactful role in countries that aspire or plan to introduce nuclear power into their energy portfolios. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) defines SMRs as “advanced reactors that produce electricity of up to 300 MW per module2.” SMRs offer a range of outputs and opportunities for sustainable energy development, particularly in remote areas with less developed infrastructures. (author)
[en] This year has undoubtedly been quite different from past years due to the COVID-19 situation that has disrupted life worldwide. The IAEA and Austria in general started the quarantine process by mid-March and to date we are working both in the office and from home. As you know the IAEA, in partnership with the FAO, has been developing and transferring diagnostic tests for transboundary animal and zoonotic diseases, including those with biothreat potential, for many years. So far this year, on their request we have supported more than 120 Member States in their efforts to diagnose and control COVID-19. We have been providing equipment, diagnostic kits, primers and PPEs to establish and use molecular techniques (RT-PCR) to rapidly detect SARS-CoV-2. For this emergency assistance several Member States and private companies have pledged nearly 26 million euro as a contribution to the IAEA’s efforts in helping to tackle the pandemic. This is the IAEA’s largest technical cooperation initiative since it was founded in 1957. The focus of the Animal Production and Health Subprogramme activities is on enhancing food security by supporting sustainable livestock production systems in developing countries. This is to be achieved by strategic and applied research, technology transfer and capacity building. The three principal components of the subprogramme are animal nutrition; animal reproduction, breeding and genetics; and animal health. Animal production and health problems are identified and solutions developed through the use of strategically applied isotopic, nuclear, nuclear-based and nuclear-derived tools, in conjunction with conventional technologies to: ▪ characterize and optimally utilize the nutritional value of locally available feed and feed resources to enhance energy conversion whilst protecting the environment and minimizing greenhouse gas emissions; ▪ enhance animal reproduction and breeding through the introduction of artificial insemination, embryo transfer and productive breed selection, and the characterization of livestock genetic make-up to drive the integration of locally adapted animal breeds with trait selected exotic breeds to satisfy the increasing demand for more and better-quality animals and animal products; and ▪ assess and reduce the risk of transboundary animal and zoonotic diseases to livestock and livestock owners through the implementation of early and rapid diagnosis and control technologies and their use in national and international control and eradication programmes. The above activities are complemented by tools developed for computerized data management in disease diagnosis and animal production; use of geographic information systems in management of farm resources and diseases; and distance learning through information communication technologies in the related areas. The FAO/IAEA Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (VETLAB) Network is instrumental for the development, validation and dissemination of technologies, know-how and expertise worldwide. Please note that owing to the COVID-19 outbreak, the ‘International Symposium on Sustainable Animal Production and Health - Current Status and Way Forward’ planned for June 2020 at the IAEA’s Headquarters in Vienna, Austria has been postponed to 28 June to 2 July 2021. Further details will be circulated in due time.
[en] Many countries, in particular those within the African continent, face increasing energy demands and gaps in supply. Currently, most countries in Africa generate electricity from oil and natural gas. In the future, however, they will be obliged to develop an energy mix strategy in order to fulfil the long-term energy demand of end users. Small- and medium-sized modular nuclear reactor (SMR) technologies, using small quantities of uranium fuel, will be a serious option for many least developed countries (LDCs) within Africa that currently do not yet have a profound knowledge of the entire nuclear power technology field and related technologies. In addition, a growing interest in mining uranium deposits that have smaller resources will grow and even become strategic with regards to cooperation and marketing for both newcomers, expanders and providers of nuclear power services. In the same approach, limitations of pollutant releases from traditional sources of energy and their impacts on climate change will be the in consideration in many politics of development at local and global level. (author)
[en] The focus of the Animal Production and Health Subprogramme activities is on enhancing food security by supporting sustainable livestock production systems in developing countries. This is to be achieved by strategic and applied research, technology transfer and capacity building. The three principal components of the subprogramme are animal nutrition, animal reproduction, breeding and genetics and animal health. Animal production and health problems are identified and solutions developed through the use of strategically applied isotopic, nuclear, nuclear-based and nuclear-derived tools, in conjunction with conventional technologies to: ▪ characterize and optimally utilize the nutritional value of locally available feed and feed resources to enhance energy conversion, whilst protecting the environment and minimizing greenhouse gas emissions; ▪ enhance animal reproduction and breeding through the introduction of artificial insemination, embryo transfer and productive breed selection, and the characterization of livestock genetic make-up to drive the integration of locally adapted animal breeds with trait selected exotic breeds to satisfy the increasing demand for more and better-quality animals and animal products; ▪ assess and reduce the risk of transboundary animal and zoonotic diseases to livestock and livestock owners through the implementation of early and rapid diagnosis and control technologies and their use in national and international control and eradication programmes. The above activities are complemented by tools developed for computerized data management in disease diagnosis and animal production; use of geographic information systems in management of farm resources and diseases; and distance learning through information communication technologies in the related areas. The FAO/IAEA Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (VETLAB) Network is instrumental for the development, validation and dissemination of technologies, know-how and expertise worldwide. Please note the ‘Sustainable Animal Production and Health’ symposium that will take place from 22 to 26 June 2020 at the IAEA’s Headquarters in Vienna, Austria.