Results 1 - 10 of 855
Results 1 - 10 of 855. Search took: 0.025 seconds
|Sort by: date | relevance|
[en] The question is posed as to whether high technology in nuclear medicine might lead to the nuclear medicine practitioner possibly finishing up working for the machine rather than the improvement of health care in its widest sense. A brief examination of some pros and cons of high technology nuclear medicine is given. (U.K.)
[en] Based on the review of the basic design of the sectoral crediting mechanism (SCM) – a promising option for developing countries’ emission reduction commitments – this paper analyzes five important practical issues for China to solve before participating in SCM, which include (1) difficulties in determining a crediting baseline (2) the unsolved over-supply problem in the carbon market (3) the very likely “carbon credits falling short of mitigation costs” problem (4) the immature market-oriented price system jeopardizing the success of motivation incentives and (5) inadequate capacity building. Corresponding suggestions or compromise solutions are given after a discussion of each issue. It is also recommended that in order to witness SCM come into being, researchers and negotiators should endeavor to solve the practical issues that SCM meets now, bearing in mind the balance of interests of both developing and developed countries. Finally we believe that SCM’s political barriers can be overcome when technical, economic institutional and capacity problems are solved. - Highlights: ► Latest developments in Sectoral Crediting Mechanism design have been reviewed. ► Ten years would be an ideal duration to adjust sectoral crediting baseline in China. ► Specific sectors could be selected to solve the carbon credits over-supply problem. ► SCM credits may come short of the mitigation costs, claiming a rising carbon price. ► Pricing system in China’s electricity sector makes it not a good candidate for SCM.
[en] Due to the fact that human activities and most sustainability issues are closely related to energy use, the energy system is a sound framework for providing lead indicators for sustainable development. Common energy-economic models enable the estimation of future states of the energy system. An energy system-based lead indicator set can be used to develop consistent and coherent future indicator estimates and to track sustainability, a clear advantage over existing sets. In developed countries, the sustainability discussion is focused on environmental topics, while in developing countries the issues of poverty and equity are equally important. Consequently, for measuring sustainable development in a developing country, the inclusion of a poverty indicator in a set of lead indicators is essential. By correlation and descriptive analysis, it is shown that reliable energy-based indicators of poverty can be created. Although no one-dimensional indicator is a comprehensive measure of poverty, the explanatory power of energy poverty indicators is comparable to that of other poverty indicators. Thus, the use of energy indicators is not restricted to environmental and economic issues but is also relevant for social issues
[en] Two approaches to slowing down the increase of the greenhouse effect are compared: (1) planting of trees, a solution largely considered in international meetings and (2) increase of productivity of agricultural land by soil fertility improvements. Option (2) appears 5 to 10 times cheaper and has a quicker effect on the atmosphere than option (1). It deserves, therefore, higher consideration as a possible option in developing countries. Whereas in industrialized countries with already highly intensive agriculture practices option (1) deserves more attention. (author)
[en] The world energy conference held in India recently discussed energy related topics in developing and industrialized countries. Developing countries were concerned with fuel wood shortages, food shortages, population growth, transport costs, oil, rural biogas plants and nuclear power. Industrialized nations were concerned with coal production, nuclear power, uranium and renewable energy sources. (U.K.)
[en] Highlights: • The paper deals with the role of decentralization and accountability in explaining variation in fuel subsidies. • Panel data over the period 1998–2008, for 108 countries • The effect of decentralization decreases fuel subsidies, and it is more pronounced when the level of accountability is low. • For developing countries, decentralization decreases gasoline and diesels subsidies. • For developed countries, decentralization does not have any impact. - Abstract: This paper explores the role of decentralization in explaining variation in fuel subsidies across countries. Using panel data over the period 1998-2008 and for 108 countries, it emerges that the effect of ''decentralization'' (taken to be an increase in the number of government levels) broadly decreases both diesel and gasoline subsidies, with this effect being more pronounced when the level of political accountability is low. For developing countries, for which political accountability is low, decentralization decreases gasoline and diesel subsidies by at least 6.98% and 12.99%, respectively. For developed countries, for which political accountability is high, decentralization does not have any impact on both gasoline and diesel. What this evidence points to is that in developing economies, where voters are poorly informed and accountability is low, decentralization appears to be associated with lower fuel subsidies.
[en] Geothermal, Hydro, Solar and Wind projects located in developing (4808 CDM projects) and developed (2952 Annex I projects) are compared in terms of size (capacity – MWe), capital intensity (US$/MWe) and average investment (US$ per project). The average investment in both CDM and Annex I projects increased rapidly between 2000 and 2012. Most investment in renewable energy projects in both developed and developing countries comes from domestic sources, although the share of foreign investment has been rising for both CDM and Annex I projects. A project with foreign investors often attracts funds from multiple countries, including the host country. - Highlights: • Geothermal, Hydro, Solar and Wind CDM projects are larger and less capital intensive than similar developed country projects. • Average investment in CDM and developed country Geothermal, Hydro, Solar and Wind projects increased rapidly over 2000–2012. • Most investment in renewables projects is domestic sources, but the share of foreign investment has been rising
[en] Attempts to reform the electricity sector in developing countries have achieved mixed results, despite the implementation of similar reforms in many developed countries, and concerted effort by donors to transfer reform models. In many cases, political obstacles have prevented full and effective implementation of donor-promoted reforms. This paper examines the political economy of power sector reform in Fiji from 1996 to 2013. Reform has been pursued with political motives in a context of clientelism. Policy inconsistency and reversal is explained by the political instability of ethnic-based politics in Fiji. Modest success has been achieved in recent years despite these challenges, with Fiji now considered a model of power sector reform for other Small Islands Developing States (SIDS) in the Pacific. The experience demonstrates that reform is possible within difficult political environments, but it is challenging, takes time and is not guaranteed. The way in which political motives have driven and shaped reform efforts also highlights the need for studies of power sector reform to direct greater attention toward political drivers behind reform. - Highlights: • This is the first study of power sector reform in Fiji or other Small Island Developing States (SIDS) of the Pacific. • The clientelist nature of politics in Fiji is found to have both driven and shaped reform efforts. • There has been modest success in recent years despite these obstacles, with Fiji now considered a model for other SIDS. • The experience demonstrates that reform is possible within difficult political environments, but it is challenging, takes time and is not guaranteed
[en] Global concerns about environment and climate change have led to the rapid development of solar PV industry across the world. Meanwhile, the provision of heavy subsidies has motivated the discussion of social and economic benefits of this technology, mainly on the impacts on employment. Although there is abundant literature on this issue in developed countries, studies on developing countries, especially of China are rare. In this study, a spreadsheet-based analytical model is established for the estimation of employment effects of China's solar PV industry during the period of 2009–2015. Building on this model and using four indices and detailed data of sample companies, it is found that during the period of 2009–2015, whilst the number of jobs created by China's solar PV industry increased, the jobs/MW ratios and employment skewness of China's solar PV industry declined. The main policy implications are that the government should fully recognize the solar PV industry's role in China's employment, improve the implementation of existing solar PV policies, provide more financial support to solar PV projects, particularly to distributed solar PV projects, and enhance the education and training of solar PV professionals. - Highlights: • A spreadsheet-based analytical model is established. • Four indices and detailed data of sample companies are used. • The number of jobs created by China's solar PV industry increased steadily during the period of 2009–2015. • The jobs/MW ratios and employment skewness of China's solar PV industry declined during the period of 2009–2015. • The role of solar PV industry in China's employment should be fully recognized.
[en] Although generally supported by international experts and the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), carbon (C) sequestration has long been a contentious and difficult issue in global climate negotiations. As the recent sixth Conference of the Parties (COP-6) held in The Hague in November 2000 demonstrated, the 'sinks' issue divides both the industrialized countries and the developing countries. To understand the background of the C sink controversy, and in order to assess the political acceptability of direct foreign investments in soil C sequestration in developing countries as an eligible climate policy measure, this paper briefly summarizes the main issues in the international policy debate on sinks. The paper finally analyzes the informal outcomes of COP-6 and attempts to predict the outcomes of the resumed COP-6 (COP-6 bis) to be held in July 2001. (author)