Results 1 - 10 of 1022
Results 1 - 10 of 1022. Search took: 0.022 seconds
|Sort by: date | relevance|
[en] Based on the review of the basic design of the sectoral crediting mechanism (SCM) – a promising option for developing countries’ emission reduction commitments – this paper analyzes five important practical issues for China to solve before participating in SCM, which include (1) difficulties in determining a crediting baseline (2) the unsolved over-supply problem in the carbon market (3) the very likely “carbon credits falling short of mitigation costs” problem (4) the immature market-oriented price system jeopardizing the success of motivation incentives and (5) inadequate capacity building. Corresponding suggestions or compromise solutions are given after a discussion of each issue. It is also recommended that in order to witness SCM come into being, researchers and negotiators should endeavor to solve the practical issues that SCM meets now, bearing in mind the balance of interests of both developing and developed countries. Finally we believe that SCM’s political barriers can be overcome when technical, economic institutional and capacity problems are solved. - Highlights: ► Latest developments in Sectoral Crediting Mechanism design have been reviewed. ► Ten years would be an ideal duration to adjust sectoral crediting baseline in China. ► Specific sectors could be selected to solve the carbon credits over-supply problem. ► SCM credits may come short of the mitigation costs, claiming a rising carbon price. ► Pricing system in China’s electricity sector makes it not a good candidate for SCM.
[en] Highlights: • The paper deals with the role of decentralization and accountability in explaining variation in fuel subsidies. • Panel data over the period 1998–2008, for 108 countries • The effect of decentralization decreases fuel subsidies, and it is more pronounced when the level of accountability is low. • For developing countries, decentralization decreases gasoline and diesels subsidies. • For developed countries, decentralization does not have any impact. - Abstract: This paper explores the role of decentralization in explaining variation in fuel subsidies across countries. Using panel data over the period 1998-2008 and for 108 countries, it emerges that the effect of ''decentralization'' (taken to be an increase in the number of government levels) broadly decreases both diesel and gasoline subsidies, with this effect being more pronounced when the level of political accountability is low. For developing countries, for which political accountability is low, decentralization decreases gasoline and diesel subsidies by at least 6.98% and 12.99%, respectively. For developed countries, for which political accountability is high, decentralization does not have any impact on both gasoline and diesel. What this evidence points to is that in developing economies, where voters are poorly informed and accountability is low, decentralization appears to be associated with lower fuel subsidies.
[en] Geothermal, Hydro, Solar and Wind projects located in developing (4808 CDM projects) and developed (2952 Annex I projects) are compared in terms of size (capacity – MWe), capital intensity (US$/MWe) and average investment (US$ per project). The average investment in both CDM and Annex I projects increased rapidly between 2000 and 2012. Most investment in renewable energy projects in both developed and developing countries comes from domestic sources, although the share of foreign investment has been rising for both CDM and Annex I projects. A project with foreign investors often attracts funds from multiple countries, including the host country. - Highlights: • Geothermal, Hydro, Solar and Wind CDM projects are larger and less capital intensive than similar developed country projects. • Average investment in CDM and developed country Geothermal, Hydro, Solar and Wind projects increased rapidly over 2000–2012. • Most investment in renewables projects is domestic sources, but the share of foreign investment has been rising
[en] Therapeutic applications of adult stem cells performed in Costa Rica were investigated. Some Therapeutic applications of the mesenchymal stem cells and hematopoietic stem cells studied in some countries were described, as well as the results obtained from these. Institutions both private and at the level of the Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social working with stem cells adult in Costa Rica were identified. The use of adult stem cells in these institutions was detailed. The COBE SPECTRA equipment is used in Costa Rica to carry out therapeutic apheresis and obtain peripheral blood cells for hematopoietic stem cells transplants. The flow cytometry was performed in patients with hematological diseases to quantify CD34+ cells and to proceed to autologous or allogeneic transplants
[es]Las aplicaciones terapeuticas de celulas madre adultas realizadas en Costa Rica fueron investigadas. Algunas aplicaciones terapeuticas de las celulas madre mesenquimales y celulas madre hematopoyeticas estudiadas en algunos paises fueron descritas, asi como los resultados obtenidos de estos. Las instituciones tanto a nivel privado como a nivel de la Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social que trabajan con celulas madre adultas en Costa Rica fueron identificadas. El uso de las celulas madre adultas en dichas instituciones fue detallado. El equipo COBE SPECTRA es utilizado en Costa Rica para llevar a cabo la aferesis terapeutica y obtener celulas de sangre periferica para trasplantes de celulas madre hematopoyeticas. La citometria de flujo fue realizada en pacientes con enfermedades de base hematologica para cuantificar las celulas CD34+ y proceder a trasplantes autologos o alogenicos
[en] Global concerns about environment and climate change have led to the rapid development of solar PV industry across the world. Meanwhile, the provision of heavy subsidies has motivated the discussion of social and economic benefits of this technology, mainly on the impacts on employment. Although there is abundant literature on this issue in developed countries, studies on developing countries, especially of China are rare. In this study, a spreadsheet-based analytical model is established for the estimation of employment effects of China's solar PV industry during the period of 2009–2015. Building on this model and using four indices and detailed data of sample companies, it is found that during the period of 2009–2015, whilst the number of jobs created by China's solar PV industry increased, the jobs/MW ratios and employment skewness of China's solar PV industry declined. The main policy implications are that the government should fully recognize the solar PV industry's role in China's employment, improve the implementation of existing solar PV policies, provide more financial support to solar PV projects, particularly to distributed solar PV projects, and enhance the education and training of solar PV professionals. - Highlights: • A spreadsheet-based analytical model is established. • Four indices and detailed data of sample companies are used. • The number of jobs created by China's solar PV industry increased steadily during the period of 2009–2015. • The jobs/MW ratios and employment skewness of China's solar PV industry declined during the period of 2009–2015. • The role of solar PV industry in China's employment should be fully recognized.
[en] In recent decades there has been considerable progress in physics and the technology necessary to exploit nuclear fusion as a source of energy. Through its programmatic activities, the IAEA not only continuously contributes to this global effort by facilitating international collaboration and the exchange of scientific and technical information, but also provides support in organizing relevant international conferences and symposia. The fifth International Conference on the Frontiers of Plasma Physics and Technology, held in Singapore from 10 to 22 April 2011, is a good example of successful collaboration. Approximately 110 delegates from all continents attended this conference. One of its main goals was to enable young researchers from developing countries to interact closely with international experts and to become acquainted with the latest developments in the field. The conference also helped initiate noteworthy collaboration between developing and developed countries. This publication contains 54 manuscripts and presentations covering the material discussed during the conference
[en] Attempts to reform the electricity sector in developing countries have achieved mixed results, despite the implementation of similar reforms in many developed countries, and concerted effort by donors to transfer reform models. In many cases, political obstacles have prevented full and effective implementation of donor-promoted reforms. This paper examines the political economy of power sector reform in Fiji from 1996 to 2013. Reform has been pursued with political motives in a context of clientelism. Policy inconsistency and reversal is explained by the political instability of ethnic-based politics in Fiji. Modest success has been achieved in recent years despite these challenges, with Fiji now considered a model of power sector reform for other Small Islands Developing States (SIDS) in the Pacific. The experience demonstrates that reform is possible within difficult political environments, but it is challenging, takes time and is not guaranteed. The way in which political motives have driven and shaped reform efforts also highlights the need for studies of power sector reform to direct greater attention toward political drivers behind reform. - Highlights: • This is the first study of power sector reform in Fiji or other Small Island Developing States (SIDS) of the Pacific. • The clientelist nature of politics in Fiji is found to have both driven and shaped reform efforts. • There has been modest success in recent years despite these obstacles, with Fiji now considered a model for other SIDS. • The experience demonstrates that reform is possible within difficult political environments, but it is challenging, takes time and is not guaranteed
[en] Multi-Stakeholder Partnerships can overcome many of the problems which exist with the transfer of Environmentally Sound Technologies (ESTs) from developed to developing countries, but as yet they have not been explored in detail in the negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Technology transfer is an important part of the UNFCCC, but the mechanism for achieving this is problematic. Developed countries prefer a market approach whereas developing countries tend to negotiate for direct grants. Multi-stakeholder partnerships offer a pathway through which technology is transferred and developing country capacity enhanced, while the interests of developed country private enterprise innovators are also protected. We present opinions and a case-study on multi-stakeholder partnerships and discuss some of the advantages that multi-stakeholder partners can offer. (author)
[en] The enhancement of mechanical properties and long term performance of hot mix asphalt (HMA) should be considered as a goal in order to achieve a transport infrastructure really sustainable. However, this issue becomes a difficult task, if conventional HMA are used. In fact, performance of conventional HMA, usually presents poor long term performance and functional distresses related to high and low temperatures, which in turn implies higher maintenance costs and superior carbon footprints. To overcome this weaken, bitumen industry has been developing new polymer modifiers, additives to improve HMA behaviour. One of the techniques most used in developed countries to enhance HMA behaviour is the use of modified bitumen. Modifying the bitumen, and then producing modified HMA requires specific equipment and facilities that may be time-consuming, expensive and hard to manage. For instance, to warranty a successful modifying process, storage and handling of the modified bitumen are issues very complex to handle. On the other hand, producing a polymer modified HMA by adding polymers and additives directly during the bitumen/aggregate mixing process may offer very interesting advantages since the economical, production and sustainability standpoint. This paper aimed to determine the feasibility of the incorporation of fibres and plastomeric polymers into different types of HMA by means of the “dry process” (to add polymers during the mixing of aggregate and bitumen in the HMA plant) to produce polymer modified mixes. Thus, laboratory tests including Marshall Stability, Indirect Tensile Stiffness Modulus, repeated load test and Indirect Tensile Strength test were performed to assess the effect of the inclusion of fibres and plastomeric polymers on mechanical and volumetric properties of selected mixes. Results showed that the modification of bituminous mixtures following the “dry process” could be used to improve the performance and long term properties of HMA. (paper)
[en] Energy poverty is the primary energy security issue impacting almost 800 million people, particularly women and children, in the developing countries of Asia. Current trends indicate that should there be no change to existing policies, and the governance systems and institutions underpinning them, the absolute number of energy poor will barely shift. Most significantly, addressing energy poverty is critical to absolute poverty reduction, enhanced gender equality and political stability in the Asian region. We offer a solution to progress the energy poverty alleviation effort focused on encouraging sustainable, development-centred investment. This will involve multi-actor partnerships between developed and developing country governments, investors, and multilateral institutions. We propose that there may be spill over effects for investing firms, in the form of strengthened corporate reputation. Consequently, energy poverty alleviation efforts can create new opportunities for commerce, multilateral institutions, NGOs, and developing and developed countries. It is envisaged that the multi-actor approach put forward by this paper will facilitate the partnerships, programs and provisions needed to alleviate energy poverty in Asia. However, critical to the success of this collaborative approach is a genuine shift in sentiment from the key stakeholders involved in the effort