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[en] Two approaches to slowing down the increase of the greenhouse effect are compared: (1) planting of trees, a solution largely considered in international meetings and (2) increase of productivity of agricultural land by soil fertility improvements. Option (2) appears 5 to 10 times cheaper and has a quicker effect on the atmosphere than option (1). It deserves, therefore, higher consideration as a possible option in developing countries. Whereas in industrialized countries with already highly intensive agriculture practices option (1) deserves more attention. (author)
[en] This book gives explanations of the conception of technical innovation, development plan in Korea, connection between technology and a growth factor in national income, problem of technical innovation in developing country, analysis on cooperation between a developed country and a developing country, evaluation and strategy of technical development in Korea, technical innovation of industry, management of technical industry, analysis of special condition in Korea.
[en] This book introduces technology progress and economic growth, theoretical consideration of technology transfer, policy and mechanism on technology transfer of a developed country and a developing country, reality of international technology transfer technology transfer and industrial structure in Asia and the pacific region, technology transfer in Russia, China and Eastern Europe, cooperation of science and technology for development of Northeast Asia and strategy of technology transfer of Korea.
[en] Despite significantly contributing to country's overall economic development through providing employment for the people and supplying raw materials for agro- and resource based industrial development, agriculture is putting serious burden on the environment in the process of production and consumption of agricultural produce. It is the largest consumer and polluter of water resources and contributor of atmospheric pollution, land degradation and forest reduction. Agriculture-environmental relationship is complex and the relationship depends on the spatial and biophysical factors and country's level of economic development. This paper tried to document the linkages between agricultural practices and policies with environment. The channels, through which agriculture impacts the environment, is discussed. It is seen that multilateral trade liberalization in agriculture interacts with the domestic agricultural policy reforms to determine the environmental impacts of agriculture. It is seen that agricultural policy reforms and agricultural trade liberalization can have separate environmental effects in the developed and developing countries. A wide range of theoretical and empirical literatures are reviewed, in this paper, to understand the concepts, linkages and environmental problems. Finally, this paper ends up with the conclusion that integrating environmental considerations into domestic agricultural policies and implementing agro-environmental programmes may ensure the decline of environmental problems of agriculture in both the developed and developing countries. (author)
[en] The discussion on climate change is based on 'contradictory certainties'. All sides claim to have found the truth. Much has been written and said about the connection between global warming, biodiversity and over population. The impoverished countries of the South se the insatiable intentions of the North as the major threat to the environment; and global warming as an excuse for stopping the economic development of the south
[en] At present there are more ethical-anthropological reasons than economic ones which speak for an expansion of nuclear energy: Ecological, climatic, peace and resource policy problems which most porbably will be unsolvable by real human beings and expensive methods leaving out nuclear energy. The risks resulting from that exceed by several orders of magnitude the risk which would be involved in the operation of various thousands of modern nuclear power plants. Most of the nuclear power plants are and will be operated today and tomorrow in industrialized countries; however, some of them are running already today in several threshold countries. Therefore the safety of nuclear power plants must be such as to permit their construction anywhere. Together with intensified saving, nuclear energy can solve energy policy problems in all sectors of the energy market predominantly in a non-fossil way, namely by taking over almost the entire power generation, by economical application of power instead of fossil fuels, rendering at the same time a large number of energy services, and supplying process and heating heat. Uranium supply will be solved internationally by prospection and increased uranium exploitation, or by the breeder, at economically reasonable cost. Safe waste management is technically feasible. Lack of acceptance neccessitates at present safe intermediate storage at reasonable cost. When discussing this question the ethical aspect of nuclear energy expansion should be stressed. (orig./UA)
[de]Fuer einen Ausbau der Kernenergie sprechen derzeit weniger wirtschaftliche als ehtisch-anthropologische Gruende: Oekologische, klimatische, friedens- und ressourcenpolitische Probleme, die mit realen Menschen auf kostspieligen Wegen ohne Kernenergie mit an Sicherheit grenzender Wahrscheinlichkeit nicht zu loesen sein werden. Die sich daraus ergebenden Risiken uebersteigen das Risiko, das sich durch den Betrieb mehrerer tausend moderner Kernkraftwerke ergibt, um mehrere Groessenordnungen. Die meisten Kernkraftwerke werden heute und morgen in Industrielaendern betrieben und zu betreiben sein, sie laufen aber auch heute schon in mehreren Schwellenlaendern. Kernkraftwerke muessen daher so sicher sein, dass sie ueberall errichtet werden koennen. Gemeinsam mit verstaerktem Sparen kann Kernenergie in allen Sektoren des Energiemarktes die energiepolitischen Probleme ganz ueberwiegend nichtfossil loesen, und zwar durch weitgehende Uebernahme der Stromerzeugung, durch sparsamen Einsatz von Strom anstelle fossiler Brennstoffe bei einer Vielzahl von Energiedienstleistungen und durch Lieferung von Prozess- und Heizwaerme. Die Uranversorgung wird durch Prospektion und vermehrte Urangewinnung oder durch den Brueter zu wirtschaftlich vertretbaren Kosten geloest werden. Die Entsorgung ist technisch sicher machbar, der Mangel an Akzeptanz zwingt derzeit zur sicheren, kostenmaessig ertraeglichen Zwischenlagerung. Bei der Diskussion dieser Frage gilt, wie anderswo, dass der ethische Aspekt eines Kernenergie-Ausbaus staerker betont werden sollte. (orig./UA)
[en] Introduction of Small and Medium Power Reactors (SMPRs) in the electrical grids of developing Member States is a long standing programme for the International Atomic Energy Agency. This presentation describes the activities of the Agency in this area for the last few years and discusses the advantages of SMPRs for developing countries with small grids. Constraints which hinder the introduction of SMPRs are also described as are suggested ways to overcome the constraints. (author)
[en] The world energy situation is briefly examined. The options for energy policies are outlined and the effect these have on nuclear power's contribution to energy production is discussed. Recommendations are presented for improving the development of nuclear energy. These include cost control, realistic safety requirements, efficient management of existing equipment, greater attention to the back end of the fuel cycle and improved international cooperation in the field of the fast breeder reactors and in the supply of power reactors to third world countries. (U.K.)