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[en] This study aims to examine the convergence hypothesis of per capita carbon dioxide emission and its component such as coal, oil, and gas in the case of 53 countries covering the period of 1980 to 2016. In particular, we study whether countries are moving toward a common steady-state equilibrium condition in the per capita carbon emission or converging into different groups. To do so, this study used Phillips and Sul (Econometrica 75(6): 1771–1855, 2007, J Appl Econ 24(7): 1153–1185, 2009) technique. Our results show no evidence of convergence for full sample. However, our results support the evidence of two club convergence of total emission, emission from gas and petroleum consumption, while three clubs are noticed in case of per capita carbon dioxide emission from coal use. This invalidates the equality rule of participation of each country in climate change policy. Further, similar results emerge in case of total emission and petroleum where club 1 consists of mostly developed countries while club 2 has a large number of developing countries. Interestingly, we do not find any divergence behavior across all countries in the sample. We find that natural gas is the major component to drive the total carbon emission convergence in case of our sample countries.
[en] We apply the well-known Tsallis statistics to model criminality and vehicle chaos in Lima city. Despite of the fact tha Per´u has shown interesting indicators of a reduced generalized poverty, the apparition of high rates of criminality and high vehicle traffic is considered as a logic consequence due to the economical progress of the country. In this paper we argument that the geographical apparition of these social issues has as origin the phase transitions as seen in the Tsallis entropy, from a low to middle social-economical layer, fact that is not contemplated in the regional and urbanistic evolution of large cities such as Lima with a population of around 10M of habitants
[en] A huge accumulation of domestic waste has caused serious environmental contamination in rural areas of developing countries (RADIC). The characteristics and management of domestic waste are carefully discussed, based on field surveys and a literature review. The results indicate that the generation in most of RADIC is less than the median of 0.521 kg day−1 per capita in China, and much smaller than in rural areas of developed countries (RADEC). Organic waste and inert waste with an accumulative mass percentage of 72.31% are dominant components of domestic waste in the rural areas of China. There are trends of increasing amounts of kitchen waste, paper/cardboard, and plastic/rubber and a decreasing trend of ash waste. The RADIC composition of domestic waste had a high content of organic waste and a low content of recyclable waste compared to the RADEC. Domestic waste has good compressibility and a light bulk density ranging from 40 to 650 kg m−3. The moisture, ash, combustible, and calorific values of domestic waste were 53.31%, 18.03%, 28.67%, and 5368 kJ kg−1, respectively. The domestic waste has an abundance of nutrients including organic matter (39.05%), nitrogen (1.02%), phosphorus (0.50%), and potassium (1.42%). In RADIC, domestic waste can be used as an agricultural manure only after it has been collected and sorted for the potential risk of heavy metal accumulation. Based on these characteristics of domestic waste and the different situations of rural areas, four waste management modes including centralized treatment, decentralized treatment, group treatment, and mobile treatment are designed and discussed.
[en] In many developing countries there is a need to improve the food by increasing its protein content. The stimulation of the synthesis of proteins by the crops must be considered of primary importance in those countries. Different methods for determination of the available nitrogen and of the nitrogen uptake by plants can be defined: field, trials; plot methods; micro-plots; pot experiments; lysimeters; incubation of samples in the laboratory, and recurrent profile sampling. Advantages and disadvantages of all these methods are briefly discussed, considering whether the main transformations of nitrogen in soil and the nitrogen status could be characterized applying these methods. The most important nitrogen transformations in soil may be summed up as follows: 1. Leaching by rain, thereby distinguishing ammonia- and nitrate-nitrogen; 2. Volatilization (denitrification, disintegration of nitrites, evaporation, of NH3); 3. Fixation of NH4+, in expanding crystal-lattices of clay minerals. Finally, the situation in developing countries and in the industrialized, developed countries is compared, deriving some conclusions for the way of farming; to be recommended in connection with the nitrogen problems. (author)
[en] This paper searches the role of financial sector development in energy sector and therefore in climate changes in the case of developing and developed countries. Panel data ranging from 1960 to 2014 on an annual basis has been selected from 176 countries. Results suggest that carbon dioxide emissions in developed and developing countries are in long-term equilibrium relationship with financial sector; trade and finance sectors have long-term significant impacts on carbon emissions and therefore carbon emissions converge to their long-term equilibrium levels through the channels of finance and trade sectors. Impulse response analyses proved that finance and trade sectors have negative (reducing) impact on the emission levels in the case of developed economies while they have positive impact in the case of developing economies. These sectors exert significant effects on energy consumption of countries as well. Results confirm that developed countries are more successful in energy conservation policies compared to developing countries. Therefore, authorities in developing countries need to implement conservation policies effectively by mainly encouraging and supporting investments in alternative energy uses in order to prevent increases in emission levels through expansion in financial and trade sectors.
[en] There is a growing focus on the role of renewable energy (RE) policies such as feed-in tariffs (FITs), renewable portfolio standards (RPSs), subsidies, incentives, and research and development in the global energy policy mix and in promoting environmental sustainability. Although most developed countries have well-formulated RE policies, in developing countries, such policies face many barriers. This study analyzes the policies, drivers, and barriers to RE deployment for fostering environmental sustainability in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. In the GCC region, the need for economic diversification to reduce dependency on single resource, diminishing hydrocarbon reserve, loss of oil export revenue, climate change mitigation pledges, and abundant solar energy resource are the key drivers for diversifying energy sources to include RE. However, the apparent lack of consolidated policy framework for wide-scale RE utilization calls for a well-articulated policy to advance RE development in each member state. Although FIT and RPS approaches could be effective for initial deployment of small-scale RE projects, a competitive tendering and auctioning mechanisms are more suitable for large-scale projects. Whereas, developing effective energy codes could successfully promote RE deployment, the increased share of RE in energy supply would have synergistic impacts on the region. The GHG emissions avoidance expected to be achieved by the GCC countries will vary between 5 and 247 million tons of CO2 equivalent by 2030. The fulfillment of inspirational RE targets for 2030 would contribute in fulfilling climate change mitigation pledges, environmental sustainability, economic growth, and generating new jobs.
[en] The FFHC Fertilizer Programme of FAO was conceived for the purpose of demonstrating the fact that fertilizers ate the foremost input required for enhancing agricultural productivity in the majority of developing countries. An associated objective is that of setting up machinery in the countries for distribution and marketing of fertilizers and provision of credit to the traditional farmer for his fertilizer purchase. In the order of 20.000 simple trials and demonstrations with NPK are being carried out annually at the present time in 23 countries. A yield increase averaging about 63 per cent above control has resulted with the best fertilizer treatment in the several thousand measurements to date, representing a value/cost ratio of around 6/1. Recognizing that much fundamental research remains to be done for assuring maximum fertilizer efficiency under the diverse soil conditions of the developing world, personnel of the FFHC Fertilizer Programme will be profoundly interested in the IAEA, coordinated field fertility experiments in the countries where both programmes function and their full cooperation is preferred. (author)
[en] This paper examines the pattern of convergence in electricity intensity in a sample of 79 countries. We apply the residual augmented least squares regression to the convergence of energy intensity. This method has been used in the convergence of per capita energy consumption but not convergence of energy intensity. Furthermore, in contrast to the previous studies which mainly used the conventional beta convergence approach to examine conditional convergence, we use a beta convergence method that is capable of identifying the actual number of countries that contribute to conditional convergence. The sigma and gamma convergences of electricity intensity are also examined. In addition to the full sample of countries, we also examine convergence in African countries, Asian and Oceanic countries, American countries and European countries, separately. Convergences in OECD and non-OECD countries are also examined, separately. In the full sample, the results show convergence exists in 54% of the countries in the total sample. There is convergence in 65% of the African countries, 61% of the American countries, 43% of the Asian and Oceanic countries and 33% of the European countries. In terms of the regional classification, it is also observed that convergence exists for 58% of the non-OECD countries and 31% of the OECD countries. There is evidence for sigma convergence in all the blocs with the exception of European and non-OECD countries. With the exception of African countries, there is evidence for gamma convergence in all the countries and the various blocs. The policy implications of the results are discussed.
[en] Locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) is a common cancer in the developing countries. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) is a very important step in the treatment of such tumors and hence that the disease can be down staged and made amenable for surgery. All the tumors do not respond to the therapy equally. Hence, it becomes very important to predict the response of chemotherapy in such cases. This study evaluated the role of scintimammography in assessing the response to NACT in 23 patients with LABC. Histologically proven 23 patients of LABC were recruited in this study. Prechemotherapy tumor size was measured clinically in all patients and technitium (Tc)-99m sestamibi test was performed before NACT for each patient. Early (10 min) and delayed (2 h) image of the breast were acquired in anterior and lateral views after Tc-99m sestamibi intravenous injections and wash out rate (WOR) was computed. After 3-4 cycles of chemotherapy, surgery in the form of modified radical mastectomy was performed in 20 out of 23 patients (3 patients lost to follow-up) with pathologic evaluation of the residual tumor size. The pretherapy Tc-99m sestamibi WOR ranged from 8.3% to 68% with mean ± SD of 34.5% ±16.5%. The prechemotherapy Tc-99m sestamibi study predicted chemoresistance (WOR >45%) in 6 out of 20 patients and no chemoresistance (WOR <45%) in 14 out of 20 patients. When the WOR cut-off was set at >45%, the predictivity of the test was indicated by sensitivity of 91.7%, specificity of 62.5%, positive predictive value of 78.6%, and negative predictive value of 82.3% with a likelihood ratio of 0.1. Tc-99m sestamibi WOR is a reliable test for predicting tumor response to NACT. WOR >45% is highly predictive of chemoresistance with likelihood ratio of 0.1 than WOR <45% being predictive of chemoresponsiveness
[en] Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is an attractive therapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) as it allows targeted tumor irradiation which provides a cytotoxic effect significantly greater than that of the immune-mediated effects of a non-radioactive, or ‘cold’, antibody alone. Anti-CD20 antibodies such as rituximab are ideal for RIT, as not only is it easily iodinated, but the CD20 antigen is found on more than 95% of B-cell NHL. A standard operating procedure (SOP) has been formulated for personalized prospective dosimetry for safe, effective outpatient 131I-rituximab RIT of NHL. Over five years, experience of treatment of outpatients with 131I-rituximab was analyzed with respect to critical organ radiation dose in patients and radiation exposure of their carers. This radiation safety methodology has been refined; and offers the potential for safe, practical application to outpatient 131I-rituximab RIT of lymphoma in general and in developing countries in particular. Given endorsement and sanction of this SOP by local regulatory authorities the personalized dosimetry paradigm will facilitate incorporation of RIT into the routine clinical practice of therapeutic nuclear oncology worldwide