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[en] It is noted that the share of electric power generation at NPP is 15%. Sharp increased of NPP cost and decrease of electric power demand in USA lately are observed. In particular, it is explained by increase of costs to nuclear safety and by decrease of petroleum cost. Only in trance and Japan full scale nuclear power programs are carried out. Appearance of APWR reactors of new types and SNR reactor commissioning (FRG) are expected in the nearest future
[en] The world energy conference held in India recently discussed energy related topics in developing and industrialized countries. Developing countries were concerned with fuel wood shortages, food shortages, population growth, transport costs, oil, rural biogas plants and nuclear power. Industrialized nations were concerned with coal production, nuclear power, uranium and renewable energy sources. (U.K.)
[en] Highlights: • The paper deals with the role of decentralization and accountability in explaining variation in fuel subsidies. • Panel data over the period 1998–2008, for 108 countries • The effect of decentralization decreases fuel subsidies, and it is more pronounced when the level of accountability is low. • For developing countries, decentralization decreases gasoline and diesels subsidies. • For developed countries, decentralization does not have any impact. - Abstract: This paper explores the role of decentralization in explaining variation in fuel subsidies across countries. Using panel data over the period 1998-2008 and for 108 countries, it emerges that the effect of ''decentralization'' (taken to be an increase in the number of government levels) broadly decreases both diesel and gasoline subsidies, with this effect being more pronounced when the level of political accountability is low. For developing countries, for which political accountability is low, decentralization decreases gasoline and diesel subsidies by at least 6.98% and 12.99%, respectively. For developed countries, for which political accountability is high, decentralization does not have any impact on both gasoline and diesel. What this evidence points to is that in developing economies, where voters are poorly informed and accountability is low, decentralization appears to be associated with lower fuel subsidies.
[en] Therapeutic applications of adult stem cells performed in Costa Rica were investigated. Some Therapeutic applications of the mesenchymal stem cells and hematopoietic stem cells studied in some countries were described, as well as the results obtained from these. Institutions both private and at the level of the Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social working with stem cells adult in Costa Rica were identified. The use of adult stem cells in these institutions was detailed. The COBE SPECTRA equipment is used in Costa Rica to carry out therapeutic apheresis and obtain peripheral blood cells for hematopoietic stem cells transplants. The flow cytometry was performed in patients with hematological diseases to quantify CD34+ cells and to proceed to autologous or allogeneic transplants
[es]Las aplicaciones terapeuticas de celulas madre adultas realizadas en Costa Rica fueron investigadas. Algunas aplicaciones terapeuticas de las celulas madre mesenquimales y celulas madre hematopoyeticas estudiadas en algunos paises fueron descritas, asi como los resultados obtenidos de estos. Las instituciones tanto a nivel privado como a nivel de la Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social que trabajan con celulas madre adultas en Costa Rica fueron identificadas. El uso de las celulas madre adultas en dichas instituciones fue detallado. El equipo COBE SPECTRA es utilizado en Costa Rica para llevar a cabo la aferesis terapeutica y obtener celulas de sangre periferica para trasplantes de celulas madre hematopoyeticas. La citometria de flujo fue realizada en pacientes con enfermedades de base hematologica para cuantificar las celulas CD34+ y proceder a trasplantes autologos o alogenicos
[en] Geothermal, Hydro, Solar and Wind projects located in developing (4808 CDM projects) and developed (2952 Annex I projects) are compared in terms of size (capacity – MWe), capital intensity (US$/MWe) and average investment (US$ per project). The average investment in both CDM and Annex I projects increased rapidly between 2000 and 2012. Most investment in renewable energy projects in both developed and developing countries comes from domestic sources, although the share of foreign investment has been rising for both CDM and Annex I projects. A project with foreign investors often attracts funds from multiple countries, including the host country. - Highlights: • Geothermal, Hydro, Solar and Wind CDM projects are larger and less capital intensive than similar developed country projects. • Average investment in CDM and developed country Geothermal, Hydro, Solar and Wind projects increased rapidly over 2000–2012. • Most investment in renewables projects is domestic sources, but the share of foreign investment has been rising
[en] Various data are given in graphical form on primary energy production, consumption and on reserves. The energy carriers considered are: oil, gas, coal, hydro and nuclear (uranium). The subdivision of countries is done in categories like developing countries, OECD, Eastern Europe, OPEC or alternatively as geographical regions. On page 18 there is a section on 'nuclear power electricity generation capacity'. Another group of data are on non-energy figures like GPD and trade; here the partners are the groups 'developing countries' vs 'industrialized countries'
[en] There were 413 completed commercial nuclear reactors worldwide in 1991, with a net electrical generating capacity of 317,898 MWe. Another 112 reactors were on order or under construction with a projected capacity of 94,030 MWe. These totals exclude reactors of less than 30 MWe in size and include some reactors with indefinite status
[en] Attempts to reform the electricity sector in developing countries have achieved mixed results, despite the implementation of similar reforms in many developed countries, and concerted effort by donors to transfer reform models. In many cases, political obstacles have prevented full and effective implementation of donor-promoted reforms. This paper examines the political economy of power sector reform in Fiji from 1996 to 2013. Reform has been pursued with political motives in a context of clientelism. Policy inconsistency and reversal is explained by the political instability of ethnic-based politics in Fiji. Modest success has been achieved in recent years despite these challenges, with Fiji now considered a model of power sector reform for other Small Islands Developing States (SIDS) in the Pacific. The experience demonstrates that reform is possible within difficult political environments, but it is challenging, takes time and is not guaranteed. The way in which political motives have driven and shaped reform efforts also highlights the need for studies of power sector reform to direct greater attention toward political drivers behind reform. - Highlights: • This is the first study of power sector reform in Fiji or other Small Island Developing States (SIDS) of the Pacific. • The clientelist nature of politics in Fiji is found to have both driven and shaped reform efforts. • There has been modest success in recent years despite these obstacles, with Fiji now considered a model for other SIDS. • The experience demonstrates that reform is possible within difficult political environments, but it is challenging, takes time and is not guaranteed