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[en] A forage production and utilisation programme was introduced in Kwale (AEZ CL2/CL3) and Kilifi (AEZ CL3/CL4) districts to combat major constraint in low quality and quantity feed at the coast. Dairy production had a great market potential stimulated by the high urban and rural population. Willing farmers were invited to PRC-Mtwapa to see how grasses, legumes and multipurpose trees would fit in their mixed maize cassava farming system. After explaining the forage characteristics to the farmers, they were allowed to select a maximum of three out of eight legumes (Vigna Unguiculata; Dolichos lablab; Clitoria tanatea; Stylosanthes guianennsis; Mucuna pruriens; Pueraria phaseloids; Macroptlium atropurpureum and Centrosema pubescens), tree out of five Napier grasses (Cultivar Mott, Clone 13, French Cameroon, Gold Coast and Bana). Giant panicum and and one of the two multipurpose trees (Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala) to test in their farms. After planting in mid 1996 on-farm the research-extension team monitored ground cover and labor aplied monthly by gender, green leaf production, and survival over the drought in 1997. Along-side the planted forages, actual forage fed by dairy farmers was sampled, analysed for chemical composition and degradability to advise farmers on ration formulation. Ranking by farmers showed a preference for clitiria, Macuna and Dolichos in Kwale as the three best legumes. More than 70% of Napier grass variety had established while establishment rate of gliricidia was 33%. An extension leaflet developed during the study will be used to disseminate the information in the region
[en] Predicted effect of climatic change on primary agriculture are combined with knowledge of linkages of agribusiness to primary agriculture to predict the vulnerability of agribusiness to climate change. Prairie economies are extremely dependent on agricultural incomes and activities. Primary agriculture accounts for 17% of Manitoba's value added for goods producing sectors, 40% for Saskatchewan, and 10-15% for Alberta. Additional economic activity is related to providing inputs to agriculture and transporting, marketing or processing agricultural products, and is referred to as agribusiness. Input/output models have been used to relate agribusiness and agriculture impacts, and predict effects ranging from a $1.3 million gain to a $21 million loss. Many climate change scenarios enhance agricultural productivity relative to baseline conditions. Economic impacts will likely be as important due to effects of climate change on world markets and competition as from direct impacts on yields, however studies have shown both increases and decreases in yields from these areas under climate change. 6 refs
[en] This article details the consequences of the climate warming on France and particularly on 4 regions of southern France. France will be particularly well hit in its southern part: while an average earth warming of 2 degrees is expected, temperature increases of at least 3 degrees are likely locally in France. Coastal regions particularly those densely populated of the mediterranean will have to face huge challenges: the rise of the sea level, droughts over longer periods, more frequent storms and torrential rains. At the beginning the warming will appear beneficial because of the reduction of the heating bill or the increase of the wood production but on the mean and long term the balance will be highly negative: huge economical losses are expected because of the generalization of forest fires, storms, droughts, shortage of water. France will have to adapt its agricultural sector by promoting species more resistant to the lack of water or by fighting new invading pests efficiently. (A.C.)
[en] The aim of this paper is to analyze the suitability of the packaging strategy of an important Spanish agro-food company, regarding to economic and environmental sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: Three different types of packaging are analyzed to obtain a diagnostic of the initial situation. In this process, cost and carbon footprint are calculated in order to measure the economic and environmental impacts, respectively. Then, a new packaging allocation logic is proposed with the aim of improving both aspects. Findings: The results show that the carbon footprint is strongly and positively affected by the cost reduction, showing the viability of a win-win relationship between both aspects. Research limitations/implications: The strength of this win-win relationship may be conditioned by the input values considered in this case study. Conversion factors used to calculate carbon footprint vary a lot among researchers, showing the need of standardization in this topic. Practical implications: Since the existence of a positive relationship between economic and environmental sustainability has been demonstrated, organizations should find this kind of situations in themselves to satisfy their own stakeholders. Originality/value: This article shows the potential of unite waste elimination with eco-friendly activities with the aim of increasing the competitiveness of companies. This paper also contributes to the knowledge of economic and environmental sustainability and reinforces theoretical aspects, paving the way for further research on these topics.