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[en] In recent years, annual electricity consumption in France amounted to around 470 TWh, 90% being decarbonized; at the same time, oil and natural gas consumption has been around 900 TWh and 450 TWh respectively. At present, electricity accounts for only a quarter of energy consumption. Energy savings alone will not be enough to move away from oil and natural gas: as equally anticipated for Germany and Great Britain, French reliance on electricity will have to increase significantly to replace oil and gas consumption. Various recent projections underestimate this growth. However, erroneous assumptions would affect the security of our energy supply and the daily life of the French people; the impacts on the cost of electricity and energy in general, and on the competitiveness of our economy would be considerable. In this position paper, the National Academy of Technologies of France (NATF) proposes a reasonable assessment of electricity demand in 2050. It points out that the European electricity system will be more vulnerable in coming years. It proposes some principles for the choice of economic data to be used in optimisation models. On the basis of these elements, it highlights some key points for managing change in the electricity system.
[fr]La consommation annuelle d'electricite en France a ete d'environ 470 TWh, decarbonee a plus de 90%; dans le meme temps, les consommations de petrole et de gaz naturel ont ete respectivement d'environ 900 TWh et 450 TWh. L'electricite ne represente aujourd'hui que le quart de la consommation d'energie. Les seules economies d'energie ne suffiront pas a sortir du petrole et du gaz naturel: comme le prevoient egalement l'Allemagne et la Grande-Bretagne, le recours a l'electricite en France devra croitre significativement pour se substituer aux consommations de petrole et de gaz. Diverses estimations recentes sous-estiment cette croissance. Or des anticipations erronees affecteraient la securite de notre approvisionnement energetique et la vie quotidienne des francais; les impacts sur le cout de l'electricite et des energies en general, et sur la competitivite de notre economie seraient majeurs. Dans cet avis, l'Academie des technologies propose une evaluation raisonnable de la demande d'electricite en 2050. Elle rappelle que le systeme electrique europeen sera plus fragile dans les prochaines annees. Elle propose quelques principes pour le choix des donnees economiques a retenir dans les optimisations. A partir de ces elements, elle souligne quelques points clefs de la conduite du changement du systeme electrique.
[en] lt was by way of energy (mainly coal at the time) that the countries of Europe laid the foundations for their union in the 1950's (the Treaty of the European Coal and Steel Community, signed in 1951). Though that community ended in 2002 (integrated into the Union), questions of energy have nonetheless remained crucial on the European Union's political agenda. They have loomed even larger in the context of the battle against climate change, as the EU occupies a special place in the world with ambitious objectives in terms of transition to carbon neutrality. What are the issues for the European Union in this energy transition? And what measures have been put in place to achieve it? What might be in a European Green Deal of the kind that the EU Commission which took office at the end of 2019 has raised? As part of this second instalment in the series Futuribles is devoting to climate and energy questions, Thomas Pellerin-Carlin lays out the present realities and objectives of this 'Energy Europe'. (author)
[en] Conclusions: ♦ SMR CHP has significant role in heat demand provision considering low emissions scenarios; ♦ SMR only electricity are not built; ♦ Only SMR CHP are ‘interesting’ to PLEXOS model; ♦ Due to high variability of heat demand (season but also during week) SMR CHP has rather low heat CF; ♦ SMR CHPs are superior even to Biomas CHP plants in this model.
[en] Conclusion: • Nuclear power is one of the options available for alleviating the risk of global climate change. • NP potential contribution to GHG emissions reduction could be significant. • The nuclear option will require a number of actions by governments and international organizations. • The importance of slowing the demand growth and changes in the power generation by switching to Low-Carbon energy (nuclear energy) to reduce power section CO2 emissions. • Egypt’s 2030 agenda, introduces nuclear energy as alternative Low-Carbon energy source. • In contrast to fossil energy sources, Nuclear energy is available indefinitely and therefore play a key role in sustainable energy policy and the energy transitions in terms of environmental pollution and climate change. • NP can provide effective incentives for the cement industry to improve its energy efficiency and to reduce CO2 emissions. • Under a scenario that considers announced carbon mitigation commitments and energy efficiency targets, the cement sector would increase its direct CO2 emissions just 5% by 2030, for an expected growth of 20% in cement production over the same period. However, more ambitious action would be needed to achieve climate goals.
[en] That climate change and sustainable development are the central challenges of our time has become clearer than ever before. This year, we experienced the hottest summer months in the Northern hemisphere. The years 2015 to 2019 were also the five hottest years ever recorded. Young people around the world are taking to the streets to remind us of the urgency of climate change. From the side of UNIDO, and in the implementation of our mandate of inclusive and sustainable industrial development, we see a very close connection between the central challenges of climate change and sustainable development. It is clear that both challenges are directly linked and need to be addressed simultaneously and in a cross-sectoral way. Inclusive and sustainable industrial development must be part of the solution. The positive effects on job creation, income generation, economic growth and social inclusion are evident. At the same time, industry plays an important role to address the climate challenge through a more sustainable use of resources, in particular through innovative and sustainable energy solutions.
[en] My goal today is to present Brazil’s energy and power sector, how we think long term planning, including our expectations for our energy transition. Naturally, the focus will revolve around nuclear power generation. So, one of the greatest challenges Brazil has in the energy sector, is to keep pace in expanding the energy supply to supply energy for an ever-growing demand. Our reality is one where energy demand follows closely the GDP growth and for instance in the power sector, we expect demand to rise by 3.6% per year until 2027. Brazil has started its energy transition a few decades ago, when we decided to explore our potential for hydro power plants and for bio-fuels. Today, our stock capacity is of nearly 85% of non-emitting energy sources. Unfortunately, hydro power expansion is almost achieving its limits of available sites, and also there is discussion on environmental issues for new hydro power plants in more isolated regions. When you take a broader view, the energy sector as a whole, is also quite clean. We have almost half of our energy consumption in Brazil from clean, renewable energy sources. And this is very significant for us, especially when we compare ourselves to other countries. The energy mix until 2027 is expected to be even cleaner and achieve a share of 48% of renewable energy.
[en] Optimizing an energy system model featuring a large proportion of variable (non-dispatchable) renewable energy requires a fine temporal resolution and a long period of weather data, to bring robust results. Many models are optimized over a limited set of 'representative' periods (e.g., weeks) but this precludes a realistic representation of long-term energy storage. To tackle this issue, we introduce a new method based on a variable time-step. Critical periods are defined, during which we keep an hourly temporal resolution, because they may matter for dimensioning part of the electricity system. For the other periods the temporal resolution is coarser. This method brings very accurate results in terms of system cost, curtailment, storage losses and installed capacity, even though the optimization time is reduced by a factor of ca. 60. Results are milder for battery volume. We conclude that this 'variable time-step' method is a research path worth following. (authors)
[en] One of this century’s major problems is climate change, and the demand for accessible, safe and clean electric energy is currently increasing more than ever. The principal dilemma consists in the assumption that electricity consumption continues to rise but air pollution and greenhouse gas effect emissions must fall. To meet the growing demand for reliable, affordable and clean electricity, countries will need to implement a mix of low-carbon energy sources working together and delivering 24/7. Renewable sources of energy are intermittent, therefore the combination of such sources with nuclear generation –which is a non-stop source of energy- is essential to supply the energetic demand the 21th Century is presenting, in a sustainable way (targeting SDG 7 and SDG 13). In this framework, the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) state that in order to achieve the necessary production to supply the increasing energetic demand, nuclear energy generation must more than double globally by 2050 – reaching 930 GW of total installed capacity.
[en] Despite South Africa being the leading producer and distributor of electricity on the African continent, the country has encountered some challenges in the past eleven years with regards to the supply of uninterrupted electricity. Between February and March 2019, South Africa experienced one of the worst, unprecedented power crisis since 2008, with rotational load-shedding reaching up to stage 4 to ease about 4000 MW from the national grid. Stage 4 load shedding involves intermittent rotational power cuts, three times per day for two hours at a time, or twice a day for four hours at a time. The history and challenges related to the energy crisis in South Africa and its associated impacts as observed over the past eleven years are well documented. These challenges are generic and are likely to continue unless notable alternative energy sources which are environmentally friendly, such as hydroelectricity and nuclear energy (nuclear power generation), are fully explored. Effects of paleoclimatic changes on the Zambezi River Basin (ZRB) and implications to the Cahora Bassa hydroelectricity generation is presented in this paper, based on preliminary field investigations. Additionally, a brief overview of the nuclear power generation and other renewable new-build power generation programmes, as outlined in the draft Integrated Resource Plan (IRP) of 2018 are provided. Although the planned programmes are likely to ease pressure on the continuously growing energy demand in South Africa, consideration should be given to the effects of climatic changes so that effective mitigation measures can be put in place.