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[en] Middle East LNG will be a strong candidate to serve as a source of supply to Japan in the long term. The decisive factor in ensuring that LNG trade with Japan is brought about, however, will be the terms the sellers can offer with regard to three key points: economic efficiency, supply security, and supply/demand matching. In the future, it will be essential to ensure mutual understanding between the LNG sellers and buyers as well as to continue to set up mutual efforts to reduce costs.(Author). 3 tabs
[en] The conference paper gives a summary of the energy policy in Europe with the focus on trends and changes in the energy situation. Aspects discussed in this paper are energy and society, energy demand, policy issues, the European response, and the European Energy Charter
[en] China is currently in the process of industrialization and urbanization, which is the key stage of transition from a low-income country to a middle-income country and requires large amount of energy. The process will not end until 2020, so China's primary energy demand will keep high growth in the mid-term. Although each country is unique considering its particular history and background, all countries are sharing some common rules in energy demand for economic development. Based on the comparison with developed countries, here, we report some rules in the process of industrialization and urbanization as follows: (1) urbanization always goes along with industrialization; (2) the higher economic growth is, the higher energy demand is; (3) economic globalization makes it possible to shorten the time of industrialization, but the shorter the transition phase is, the faster energy demand grows; (4) the change of energy intensity presents as an “inverted U” curve, but whose shape can be changed for different energy policy. The above rules are very important for the Chinese government in framing its energy policy. - Highlights: ► China's energy demand will maintain high growth in mid-term. ► Urbanization always goes along with industrialization. ► Higher economic growth needs more energy. ► The energy intensity presents as an “inverted U” curve.
[en] In this paper, we specify and estimate a two-level integrated total energy demand model for the Province of Quebec. The specification of the model has a close relationship with models currently used by Canadian public agencies to perform policy simulations and to make forecasts. The focus of the analysis is on forecasting. Two forecasting experiments are conducted while using within sample data. In the first experiment, we establish one-year forecasts, while in the second the model is solved recursively over the whole sample, which consists of annual data from 1962 to 1990. It is found that the model has good tracking properties and that most of the forecasting errors are random. The forecasting experiments show no significant structural defects of the estimated model as a forecasting tool. (author)
[en] Since the energy crisis, a number of energy plans have been proposed, and almost all of these envisage some kind of energy demand adaptations or conservation measures, hoping thus to escape the anticipated problems of energy supply. However, there seems to be no clear explanation of the basis on which our foreseeable future energy problems could be eased. And in fact, a first attempt at a more exact definition of energy demand and its interaction with other objectives, such as economic ones, shows that it is a highly complex concept which we still hardly understand. The article explains in some detail why it is so difficult to understand energy demand