Results 1 - 10 of 2906
Results 1 - 10 of 2906. Search took: 0.023 seconds
|Sort by: date | relevance|
[en] China is currently in the process of industrialization and urbanization, which is the key stage of transition from a low-income country to a middle-income country and requires large amount of energy. The process will not end until 2020, so China's primary energy demand will keep high growth in the mid-term. Although each country is unique considering its particular history and background, all countries are sharing some common rules in energy demand for economic development. Based on the comparison with developed countries, here, we report some rules in the process of industrialization and urbanization as follows: (1) urbanization always goes along with industrialization; (2) the higher economic growth is, the higher energy demand is; (3) economic globalization makes it possible to shorten the time of industrialization, but the shorter the transition phase is, the faster energy demand grows; (4) the change of energy intensity presents as an “inverted U” curve, but whose shape can be changed for different energy policy. The above rules are very important for the Chinese government in framing its energy policy. - Highlights: ► China's energy demand will maintain high growth in mid-term. ► Urbanization always goes along with industrialization. ► Higher economic growth needs more energy. ► The energy intensity presents as an “inverted U” curve.
[en] In this paper, we specify and estimate a two-level integrated total energy demand model for the Province of Quebec. The specification of the model has a close relationship with models currently used by Canadian public agencies to perform policy simulations and to make forecasts. The focus of the analysis is on forecasting. Two forecasting experiments are conducted while using within sample data. In the first experiment, we establish one-year forecasts, while in the second the model is solved recursively over the whole sample, which consists of annual data from 1962 to 1990. It is found that the model has good tracking properties and that most of the forecasting errors are random. The forecasting experiments show no significant structural defects of the estimated model as a forecasting tool. (author)
[en] Turkey currently has two operating research reactors but no commercial nuclear power plants, three previous attempts to establish a nuclear power programme having failed. Long term energy supply and demand projections include plans for 2000 MWe of nuclear generation, however, as part of the forecast additional 40 000 MWe of capacity which will be needed. The Turkish Electricity Generation and Transmission Company (TEAS) expects to be in operation by about 2003. A built, operate, transfer agreement will be the preferred option, the plant vendor forming a joint venture company with TEAS to build and operate the plant and sell on the electricity to TEAS. The choice of reactor is likely to depend on the time at which the decision is made. Before 2000, the choice would probably be a conventional or evolutionary BWR, PWR of PHWR design. Beyond 2000, the choice of one of a new generation of reactor designs could be made. (UK)
[en] In this work the welfare effects and the distributive impact on Italian households of the Italian Carbon tax are calculated. The Carbon tax has been introduced in Italy at the beginning of 1999 asking for smooth increases, over a number of years, in the prices of most fossil fuels. Its welfare effects have been calculated using True Cost of Living index numbers and the Compensating Variation. The parameters have been obtained through estimation of a complete Almost Ideal demand system, using household's data from 1985 to 1996. The welfare loss turns out to be quite substantial and affects Italian households in a non-negligible way, but the distribution of welfare losses across different levels of total monthly expenditures does not allow sustaining the regressivity of Carbon taxation, as the effect becomes bigger as we move up the income distribution. This evidence might encourage the use of Carbon taxes, at least in the transport sector, as cost-effective instruments of environmental policy, especially after the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change. (author)
[en] Oil price dynamics during 2002-2006 have been characterized by high volatility, high intensity jumps, and strong upward drift, and were concomitant with underlying fundamentals of oil markets and world economy; namely, pressure on oil prices resulting from rigid crude oil supply and expanding world demand for crude oil. A change in the oil price process parameters would require a change in underlying fundamentals. Market expectations, extracted from call and put option prices, anticipated no change in underlying fundamentals in the short term. Markets expected oil prices to remain volatile and jumpy, and with higher probabilities, to rise, rather than fall, above the expected mean. (author)
[en] A nationwide contingent-valuation survey of consumer preferences for consumer fuel blends E-10 (a blend of 10% ethanol and 90% gasoline for use in standard vehicles) and E-85 (a blend of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline for use in flex-fuel vehicles) was conducted to estimate willingness to pay (WTP) and identify key characteristics driving demand. Results indicate that overall perceptions of ethanol are positive, but ethanol is not the globally-preferred transportation-energy alternative, even among consumers with a positive WTP. Results indicate also that demand for E-85 is more price inelastic than E-10, with this result driven by consumers with no preference for E-10 but strong preferences for E-85. Finally, results also indicate that those consumers who are unsure about the micro-level benefits of E-85 are nonetheless more inclined to pay a premium. (author)
[en] Using large-sample high temporal resolution data from a smart metering field trial, we econometrically estimate the effects of providing feedback in addition to smart metering devices. We compare consumption levels and patterns between a pilot group that received feedback in addition to smart metering devices and a control group with only smart metering devices. We investigate, in particular, the persistence of the effects and whether the effects differ between periods of high and low household occupancy, i.e. between morning and evening periods, and between weekdays and weekend days. The findings show that feedback is effective, leading to about 5% electricity consumption reduction that is persistent over an eleven month period. Furthermore, our results show that this reduction affects both low and high occupancy periods, suggesting that feedback is associated with rather permanent changes in habitual behavior and/or investments in energy-efficient technologies. - Highlights: • Analysis of feedback on household electricity use relying on high resolution data. • Average feedback corresponds with savings of around 5% on weekdays and weekends. • Effects of feedback are persistent during the eleven month field trial. • In percentage terms, feedback effects are rather stable over the hours of the day.