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[en] China is currently in the process of industrialization and urbanization, which is the key stage of transition from a low-income country to a middle-income country and requires large amount of energy. The process will not end until 2020, so China's primary energy demand will keep high growth in the mid-term. Although each country is unique considering its particular history and background, all countries are sharing some common rules in energy demand for economic development. Based on the comparison with developed countries, here, we report some rules in the process of industrialization and urbanization as follows: (1) urbanization always goes along with industrialization; (2) the higher economic growth is, the higher energy demand is; (3) economic globalization makes it possible to shorten the time of industrialization, but the shorter the transition phase is, the faster energy demand grows; (4) the change of energy intensity presents as an “inverted U” curve, but whose shape can be changed for different energy policy. The above rules are very important for the Chinese government in framing its energy policy. - Highlights: ► China's energy demand will maintain high growth in mid-term. ► Urbanization always goes along with industrialization. ► Higher economic growth needs more energy. ► The energy intensity presents as an “inverted U” curve.
[en] In this work the welfare effects and the distributive impact on Italian households of the Italian Carbon tax are calculated. The Carbon tax has been introduced in Italy at the beginning of 1999 asking for smooth increases, over a number of years, in the prices of most fossil fuels. Its welfare effects have been calculated using True Cost of Living index numbers and the Compensating Variation. The parameters have been obtained through estimation of a complete Almost Ideal demand system, using household's data from 1985 to 1996. The welfare loss turns out to be quite substantial and affects Italian households in a non-negligible way, but the distribution of welfare losses across different levels of total monthly expenditures does not allow sustaining the regressivity of Carbon taxation, as the effect becomes bigger as we move up the income distribution. This evidence might encourage the use of Carbon taxes, at least in the transport sector, as cost-effective instruments of environmental policy, especially after the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change. (author)
[en] As energy demand and prices continue to grow, oil shale might help mitigate the energy crisis—it can widely be found all over the world but so far has not been widely used. Estonia is unique in the world for producing a large majority of energy out of oil shale and has been set as an example in numerous papers covering oil shale deposits, technology etc. This paper is the first to analyse oil shale energy related workforce and provides scenario forecasts of the labour demand for the Estonian energy sector in 2010–2020. The contribution of the paper is twofold. First, the paper provides a valuable insight into oil shale energy related workforce, enabling to take into consideration the educational needs in countries where oil shale industry might be set up. Second, methodology-wise, the paper relates labour demand and supply to different scenarios of energy production capacities. The results illustrate problems related to aging of the workforce in energy production. If the existing trends continue in educational attainment in Estonia, there will be a serious shortage of high-skilled engineering and manufacturing specialists. Our method provides a simple yet reliable enough way to check for such problems early enough. - Highlights: ► This paper analyses oil shale energy related workforce and provides scenario forecasts. ► This is the first study to investigate the workforce related to oil shale energy production. ► The main workforce-related problem in the sector is ageing of the workforce. ► Workers immigrating to the sector during the Soviet times are at the retirement age. ► There will be a serious shortage of engineers for energy sector in the near future.
[en] This study aims to examine the energy efficiency of the manufacturing industry of Korea by using the extended Divisia index decomposition of Choi and Ang (2012). First, we applied the Sato–Vartia index decomposition to the energy intensity of the manufacturing industry in Korea. Second, we attributed the growth rate of aggregate energy intensity to 10 sub-manufacturing industries through two channels: real energy intensity and structural change. The result of the decomposition illustrates that the aggregate energy intensity index decreased in the period 1981–2010. The index decomposition analysis demonstrates that real energy intensity decreased by 85.85%, whereas structural change increased energy intensity by 69.37% over the same period of time. The negative effect of structural change is partly a result of the increasing portion of energy intensive industry in manufacturing. The result reflects that industrial structure in Korea can be an important aspect for improving energy efficiency. - Highlights: • Divisia index decomposition is applied to energy intensity in Korean manufacturing. • The result shows the aggregate energy intensity index decreased from 1981 to 2010. • It also shows real energy intensity decreased, but structural change increased. • Positive structural change is attributed to energy intensive sectors of manufacturing. • The industrial structure tends to be important for improving energy efficiency
[en] Using large-sample high temporal resolution data from a smart metering field trial, we econometrically estimate the effects of providing feedback in addition to smart metering devices. We compare consumption levels and patterns between a pilot group that received feedback in addition to smart metering devices and a control group with only smart metering devices. We investigate, in particular, the persistence of the effects and whether the effects differ between periods of high and low household occupancy, i.e. between morning and evening periods, and between weekdays and weekend days. The findings show that feedback is effective, leading to about 5% electricity consumption reduction that is persistent over an eleven month period. Furthermore, our results show that this reduction affects both low and high occupancy periods, suggesting that feedback is associated with rather permanent changes in habitual behavior and/or investments in energy-efficient technologies. - Highlights: • Analysis of feedback on household electricity use relying on high resolution data. • Average feedback corresponds with savings of around 5% on weekdays and weekends. • Effects of feedback are persistent during the eleven month field trial. • In percentage terms, feedback effects are rather stable over the hours of the day.
[en] In many countries, electricity demand increases very steeply during the morning hours, and decreases steeply during the evening hours. A steep change in electricity demand incurs considerable costs for ramping up and down electric power equipment, and raises the possibility of a large-scale blackout. This paper gives new insights into classical real-time pricing (RTP) by considering the case in which demand changes very steeply. We generalize the concept of the ramping costs, and derive an extended form of RTP that achieves the optimal rate of change in quantity demanded by explicitly taking the ramping costs into account. Under the optimal pricing policy, the prices are dramatically reduced during the period corresponding to the lower end of the slope of the load curve. In contrast, the prices are dramatically raised during the period corresponding to the upper end of the slope of the load curve. As a result, the steepness of the load curve will be remarkably controlled, which will reduce both the ramping costs and the possibility of a large-scale blackout
[en] In this paper we look at the assumptions behind a Cournot model of investment in electricity markets. We analyze how information influences investment, looking at the way common knowledge of marginal costs, expectations on the competitors' marginal costs, expectations on the level and duration of demand, and conjectures on the others' behavior, influence the value of a project. We expose how the results are highly dependent on the assumptions used, and how the investment Nash-Cournot game with perfect and complete information implies such a degree of coordination between players that the outcome of the game would be classified by any regulation law as collusive behavior. Furthermore, we introduce the concept of Nash Value of Complete Information. As an example we use a stylized model of investment in liberalized electricity markets
[en] Because of economic growth and a strong increase in global energy demand the demand for fossil fuels and therefore also greenhouse gas emissions are increasing, although climate policy should lead to the opposite effect. The coal market is of special relevance as coal is available in many countries and often the first choice to meet energy demand. In this paper we assess possible interactions between climate policies and the global steam coal market. Possible market adjustments between demand regions through market effects are investigated with a numerical model of the global steam coal market: the “COALMOD-World” model. This equilibrium model computes future trade flows, infrastructure investments and prices until 2030. We investigate three specific designs of climate policy: a unilateral European climate policy, an Indonesian export-limiting policy and a fast-roll out of carbon capture and storage (CCS) in the broader context of climate policy and market constraints. We find that market adjustment effects in the coal market can have significant positive and negative impacts on the effectiveness of climate policies. - Highlights: ► Interactions between climate policy and the global coal market until 2030 modeled. ► Analysis with the numerical model: “COALMOD-World”. ► Unilateral European climate policy partly compensated by market adjustment effects. ► A fast roll-out of CCS can lead to positive market adjustment effects. ► An export restricting supply-side policy generates virtuous market adjustments.
[en] The recent economic stimulus package of China has raised growing concern about its potential impact on energy demand and efficiency. To what extent does such expansion of government expenditure influence energy intensity? This question has not been well answered by the previous research. Using provincial panel data, this paper provides some evidence of a link between government expenditure and energy intensity in China. The empirical results demonstrate that the expansion of government expenditure since Asian financial crisis has exerted a significant influence on energy intensity. An increase in government expenditure in China leads to an increase in energy intensity. Further analysis compares such relationships in different economic situations. The comparison shows that such positive effect of government expenditure remains significant after the alteration in economic situation. Therefore, the results suggest introducing some measures to consolidate China's existing gains in energy efficiency. The analysis also explains why the downward trend in energy intensity is reversed in China since 2002. (author)
[en] 'Windfall profits' again is a popular term, but mostly the term is used inappropriately. This short article discusses why, and proposes a more complete taxonomy of profits. There exists little ground and need for policy to act against genuine windfalls, while the contrary holds for other excessive earnings. Very few windfalls, freely fallen down from winds in the sky, occur after observed excessive profits are stripped from deliberate man-made interventions. That is why clear identification and correct language are needed