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[en] The water, food and energy (WEF) nexus is viewed as a fresh way of thinking about related issues. This has resulted in calls for a WEF nexus approach which is systemic, can handle its associated complexity, ambiguity and vagueness, as well as the multiple stakeholders, each with their respective viewpoint, and the implied governance implications. In response, the Cybernetic Methodology, a Problem Structuring Method, is offered as an approach to frame these issues. This permits the concept of WEF nexus to be examined and associated governance issues to be modelled, acknowledging the multi-level nature of governance, in particular, the need for co-ordination. This is illustrated drawing upon examples from the Mekong River Basin. It is concluded that this approach not only offers the capability of handing the situation relating to WEF nexus, but that its emphasis upon action and closure enhances collaborative engagement by its disparate participants.
[en] Shortcuts to adiabaticity provide a general approach to mimic adiabatic quantum processes via arbitrarily fast evolutions in Hilbert space. For these counter-diabatic evolutions, higher speed comes at higher energy cost. Here, the counter-diabatic theory is employed as a minimal energy demanding scheme for speeding up adiabatic tasks. As a by-product, we show that this approach can be used to obtain infinite classes of transitionless models, including time-independent Hamiltonians under certain conditions over the eigenstates of the original Hamiltonian. We apply these results to investigate shortcuts to adiabaticity in decohering environments by introducing the requirement of a fixed energy resource. In this scenario, we show that generalized transitionless evolutions can be more robust against decoherence than their adiabatic counterparts. We illustrate this enhanced robustness both for the Landau–Zener model and for quantum gate Hamiltonians. (paper)
[en] Highlights: • Reviews how the concept of energy service has been used to analyse energy demand. • Argues that common uses are too static and neglect the core meaning of service as useful work. • A concept of meta-services is proposed as a nexus of expectation, provision and experience. • Highlights: role of multiple stakeholders in shaping energy-service demand. • Discusses policy implications for servicizing and demand reduction. - Abstract: The idea that energy is not consumed for its own sake but for the services that it provides has become axiomatic. However, the implications are not worked through into energy policy nor into most analyses of energy demand. Instead, energy service demand is usually isolated from its dynamic and varied socio-cultural basis, rendering it inappropriately static and neglecting the core quality of usefulness that definitions of ‘energy service’ share. To address these limitations, this paper revisits and extends a sociological conceptualisation of services, referred to here as meta-services. These are composite and cross-cutting formations of convention, expectation and experience and the means of achieving them. Meta-services are more-than-energy services and are shaped not only through energy consumption, provision and governance but also by a range of other non-energy providers and organisations. This calls for demand reduction policies to engage wider coalitions of service ‘stakeholders’. In addition, because energy-services co-constitute meta-services, aspirations to deliver the same levels of service but more efficiently risk entrenching, rather than reducing, levels of service demand. Implications for service-based business models (servicizing) and policies are discussed.
[en] Highlights: • We model the large-scale impact of demand response systems with real-world data. • Our key measures include electricity price, grid load and financial savings. • The average spot price, as well as the peak price, decrease considerably. • However, the volatility of the price can rise, impairing non-flexible customers. - Abstract: Active load shifting of the electricity demand unlocks a variety of benefits. Examples of such advantages include the increased stability of energy systems, reduced electricity costs and financial savings in the transmission as well as generation infrastructure. Although the technology necessary for demand response has been extensively studied for individual appliances or at the micro-grid level, evaluations of its nationwide impact are scarce. Yet governments and policy-makers require quantitative assessments in order to understand the underlying value and derive appropriate policies. For this purpose, this paper utilizes real-world data from the German-Austrian electricity market in order to calculate ex post the impact of demand response on electricity spot prices and load. As a result, we find that a 25% adoption rate of the available potential for load shifting could have decreased nationwide electricity expenses by approximately €500 million, or 6%, in 2014. At the same time, we observe that the price volatility rises under this scheme and thus impairs non-flexible electricity customers. This observation entails significant implications in terms of designing effective policies.
[en] Highlights: • Propose optimal scheduling scheme for smart residential community. • Classify smart residential loads into different categories according to different demand response capabilities. • Reduce the peak load and peak-valley difference of residential load profile without bringing discomfort to the users. • Provide support for the decision of electricity pricing strategy under electric power market development. - Abstract: With the reformation of electric power market and the development of smart grid technology, smart residential community, a new residential demand side entity, tends to play an important role in demand response program. This paper presents a demand response scheduling model for the novel residential community incorporating the current circumstances and the future trends of demand response programs. In this paper, smart residential loads are firstly classified into different categories according to various demand response programs. Secondly, a complete scheduling scheme is modeled based on the dispatch of residential loads and distributed generation. The presented model reduces the cost of user’s electricity consumption and decreases the peak load and peak-valley difference of residential load profile without bringing discomfort to the users, through which residential community can participate in demand response efficiently. Besides, this model can also provide support for the decision of electricity pricing strategies under power market development.
[en] Highlights: • Existing demand-side responses are inadequate to prevent dangerous climate change. • Non-energy policy objectives and processes matter for energy demand. • Demand reduction objectives should be ‘mainstreamed’ into non-energy policy. • More research is needed to uncover impacts of non-energy policies on energy demand. - Abstract: This article makes the case for a new and ambitious research and governance agenda for energy demand reduction. It argues that existing ‘demand-side’ approaches focused on promoting technological efficiency and informed individual consumption are unlikely to be adequate to achieving future carbon emissions reduction goals; it points out that very little attention has so far been paid to the impacts of non-energy policies on energy demand; and it submits that a much fuller integration of energy demand questions into policy is required. It advances a general framework, supported by illustrative examples, for understanding the impacts of ‘non-energy’ policies on energy demand. It reflects on why these connections have been so little explored and addressed within energy research and policy. And it argues that, for all their current ‘invisibility’, there is nonetheless scope for increasing the visibility of, and in effect ‘mainstreaming’, energy demand reduction objectives within other policy areas. Researchers and policymakers, we contend, need to develop better understandings of how energy demand might be made governable, and how non-energy policies might be revised, alone and in combination, to help steer long-term changes in energy demand.
[en] In this short series of slides, the author presents 2 important things: first, the uncertainty about the deployment of nuclear power in the coming century in the context of an increasing energy demand and fight against climate warming and secondly the diversity of fuel cycle issues.
[en] Greece, like many other Countries at similar stage of development, fails to produce a trustworthy forecast for the evolution of the energy sector. Competent Services estimate that 'the future rebound of energy demand cannot be forecasted and therefore it is difficult for policy makers to define appropriate & realistic targets beyond 2020 for 2030'. Further, the current political approach of the Country's energetic problem a priori excludes any nuclear production of electricity. All of these parameters can change suddenly, especially due to the impact of external factors such as nuclear policy change in some major European Union Countries. Therefore, the tiny 'Nuclear Community' of the Country is striving to maintain an acceptable level of know-how in the nuclear sector and also wishes to formulate a documented proposal for the introduction of a nuclear component in the Country's energy production sector if the political conjuncture allows it. The final proposal should include a technologically advanced and cost-effective solution. If the proposed solution addresses more than one problem, the chances of adopting it are rising. A serious candidate solution could be the implementation of one or more SMRs that can easily fit to the electric grid of the Country and address particular problems such as the existence of many islands that are not connected to the mainland grid, the doubling of the population during the high season for tourism and the shortage of drinkable and irrigation water during summer. The SMRs option could also address the basic energetic problem of the Country resulting from the depletion of locally produced - but seriously harmful for the environment - lignite. The expensive option of increasing 'clean' energy imports results in higher production costs and a severe loss of competitiveness of the local Industry. The Greek team monitors the developments in the SMR sector. At the same time it develops simulation tools that allow to perform independent evaluations of various technical solutions and even to propose some attractive innovative design.(author).
[en] Highlights: • We consider the role and impact of maximum demand charges in the presence of distributed generation. • We find that maximum demand charges can lead to welfare gains. • While maximum demand charges could lead to Pareto gains, they often reduce the welfare of consumers who undertake distributed generation. • Maximum demand charges have an ambiguous impact on distributed generation capacity investment. • Time-of-use pricing often secures larger welfare gains than maximum demand charges. - Abstract: We examine the role that maximum demand charges (MDCs) might play in ensuring the financial viability of utilities in the presence of ever-expanding distributed generation (DG) of electricity. We find that optimally-designed MDCs generally secure gains for consumers that do not undertake DG, and often secure gains for consumers that undertake DG. However, the welfare gains tend to be modest in plausible settings. Furthermore, time-of-use pricing often secures larger welfare gains than do MDCs.
[en] Apparently, the world oil market has hardly changed between 2008 and 2018. A few dozen dollars less for the price of a barrel of Brent (97 dollars in 2008, between 80 and 85 dollars in October 2018) generating a considerable financial windfall for the countries of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). With 70% of the world's production traded internationally, oil still accounts for about 35% of the world's energy mix and demand for crude oil will exceed the 100 million barrels per day threshold for the first time in 2018
[fr]A premiere vue, le marche petrolier mondial n'a guere evolue entre 2008 et 2018. Quelques dizaines de dollars de moins pour le prix du baril de Brent (97 dollars en 2008, entre 80 et 85 $ en octobre 2018) engendrant une manne financiere considerable pour les pays de l'Organisation des pays exportateurs de petrole (OPEP). Avec 70 % de la production mondiale donnant lieu a des echanges internationaux, le petrole represente toujours 35 % environ du mix energetique mondial et la demande de brut depassera pour la premiere fois le seuil des 100 millions de barils par jour en 2018