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[en] China is currently in the process of industrialization and urbanization, which is the key stage of transition from a low-income country to a middle-income country and requires large amount of energy. The process will not end until 2020, so China's primary energy demand will keep high growth in the mid-term. Although each country is unique considering its particular history and background, all countries are sharing some common rules in energy demand for economic development. Based on the comparison with developed countries, here, we report some rules in the process of industrialization and urbanization as follows: (1) urbanization always goes along with industrialization; (2) the higher economic growth is, the higher energy demand is; (3) economic globalization makes it possible to shorten the time of industrialization, but the shorter the transition phase is, the faster energy demand grows; (4) the change of energy intensity presents as an “inverted U” curve, but whose shape can be changed for different energy policy. The above rules are very important for the Chinese government in framing its energy policy. - Highlights: ► China's energy demand will maintain high growth in mid-term. ► Urbanization always goes along with industrialization. ► Higher economic growth needs more energy. ► The energy intensity presents as an “inverted U” curve.
[en] The impacts are getting closer, and we all know the consequences. There is probably no one in the energy industry who is not familiar with the novel "BLACKOUT-Morgen ist es zu spät" (It's Too Late in the Morning BLACKOUT), which was published on 17.6.2013.
[de]Die Einschläge kommen näher und wir kennen alle die Folgen. Es dürfte (wahrscheinlich) niemand in der Energiebranche geben, der den am 17.6.2013 erschienenen Roman "BLACKOUT-Morgen ist es zu spät" nicht kennt.
[en] Nuclear power can make an important contribution to meeting the growing global energy demand. While it is up to each country to decide whether or not to opt for nuclear power, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has a key role to play in ensuring that the development of nuclear power programmes takes place in a safe, efficient, responsible and sustainable manner. This article summarizes the support and services that the IAEA offers to those Member States considering or embarking on a new nuclear power programme. (Author)
[en] As energy demand and prices continue to grow, oil shale might help mitigate the energy crisis—it can widely be found all over the world but so far has not been widely used. Estonia is unique in the world for producing a large majority of energy out of oil shale and has been set as an example in numerous papers covering oil shale deposits, technology etc. This paper is the first to analyse oil shale energy related workforce and provides scenario forecasts of the labour demand for the Estonian energy sector in 2010–2020. The contribution of the paper is twofold. First, the paper provides a valuable insight into oil shale energy related workforce, enabling to take into consideration the educational needs in countries where oil shale industry might be set up. Second, methodology-wise, the paper relates labour demand and supply to different scenarios of energy production capacities. The results illustrate problems related to aging of the workforce in energy production. If the existing trends continue in educational attainment in Estonia, there will be a serious shortage of high-skilled engineering and manufacturing specialists. Our method provides a simple yet reliable enough way to check for such problems early enough. - Highlights: ► This paper analyses oil shale energy related workforce and provides scenario forecasts. ► This is the first study to investigate the workforce related to oil shale energy production. ► The main workforce-related problem in the sector is ageing of the workforce. ► Workers immigrating to the sector during the Soviet times are at the retirement age. ► There will be a serious shortage of engineers for energy sector in the near future.
[en] This study aims to examine the energy efficiency of the manufacturing industry of Korea by using the extended Divisia index decomposition of Choi and Ang (2012). First, we applied the Sato–Vartia index decomposition to the energy intensity of the manufacturing industry in Korea. Second, we attributed the growth rate of aggregate energy intensity to 10 sub-manufacturing industries through two channels: real energy intensity and structural change. The result of the decomposition illustrates that the aggregate energy intensity index decreased in the period 1981–2010. The index decomposition analysis demonstrates that real energy intensity decreased by 85.85%, whereas structural change increased energy intensity by 69.37% over the same period of time. The negative effect of structural change is partly a result of the increasing portion of energy intensive industry in manufacturing. The result reflects that industrial structure in Korea can be an important aspect for improving energy efficiency. - Highlights: • Divisia index decomposition is applied to energy intensity in Korean manufacturing. • The result shows the aggregate energy intensity index decreased from 1981 to 2010. • It also shows real energy intensity decreased, but structural change increased. • Positive structural change is attributed to energy intensive sectors of manufacturing. • The industrial structure tends to be important for improving energy efficiency
[en] Using large-sample high temporal resolution data from a smart metering field trial, we econometrically estimate the effects of providing feedback in addition to smart metering devices. We compare consumption levels and patterns between a pilot group that received feedback in addition to smart metering devices and a control group with only smart metering devices. We investigate, in particular, the persistence of the effects and whether the effects differ between periods of high and low household occupancy, i.e. between morning and evening periods, and between weekdays and weekend days. The findings show that feedback is effective, leading to about 5% electricity consumption reduction that is persistent over an eleven month period. Furthermore, our results show that this reduction affects both low and high occupancy periods, suggesting that feedback is associated with rather permanent changes in habitual behavior and/or investments in energy-efficient technologies. - Highlights: • Analysis of feedback on household electricity use relying on high resolution data. • Average feedback corresponds with savings of around 5% on weekdays and weekends. • Effects of feedback are persistent during the eleven month field trial. • In percentage terms, feedback effects are rather stable over the hours of the day.
[en] Conclusions: ♦ SMR CHP has significant role in heat demand provision considering low emissions scenarios; ♦ SMR only electricity are not built; ♦ Only SMR CHP are ‘interesting’ to PLEXOS model; ♦ Due to high variability of heat demand (season but also during week) SMR CHP has rather low heat CF; ♦ SMR CHPs are superior even to Biomas CHP plants in this model.