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[en] The water, food and energy (WEF) nexus is viewed as a fresh way of thinking about related issues. This has resulted in calls for a WEF nexus approach which is systemic, can handle its associated complexity, ambiguity and vagueness, as well as the multiple stakeholders, each with their respective viewpoint, and the implied governance implications. In response, the Cybernetic Methodology, a Problem Structuring Method, is offered as an approach to frame these issues. This permits the concept of WEF nexus to be examined and associated governance issues to be modelled, acknowledging the multi-level nature of governance, in particular, the need for co-ordination. This is illustrated drawing upon examples from the Mekong River Basin. It is concluded that this approach not only offers the capability of handing the situation relating to WEF nexus, but that its emphasis upon action and closure enhances collaborative engagement by its disparate participants.
[en] Highlights: • We model the large-scale impact of demand response systems with real-world data. • Our key measures include electricity price, grid load and financial savings. • The average spot price, as well as the peak price, decrease considerably. • However, the volatility of the price can rise, impairing non-flexible customers. - Abstract: Active load shifting of the electricity demand unlocks a variety of benefits. Examples of such advantages include the increased stability of energy systems, reduced electricity costs and financial savings in the transmission as well as generation infrastructure. Although the technology necessary for demand response has been extensively studied for individual appliances or at the micro-grid level, evaluations of its nationwide impact are scarce. Yet governments and policy-makers require quantitative assessments in order to understand the underlying value and derive appropriate policies. For this purpose, this paper utilizes real-world data from the German-Austrian electricity market in order to calculate ex post the impact of demand response on electricity spot prices and load. As a result, we find that a 25% adoption rate of the available potential for load shifting could have decreased nationwide electricity expenses by approximately €500 million, or 6%, in 2014. At the same time, we observe that the price volatility rises under this scheme and thus impairs non-flexible electricity customers. This observation entails significant implications in terms of designing effective policies.
[en] The change to an energy model with lower carbon footprint sources, and the development of the corresponding technologies and extraction techniques has placed shale gas in the spotlight as it is a less polluting resource and it is abundant in the north of Spain. This energy model could be able to supply, to a large extent, the current energy needs of the country. However, there is a relevant lack of information on the subject regarding geological, economic, environmental and social issues. Consequently, a strong public opposition has developed, that has so far paralyzed the exploration and potential exploitation of these resources. The future changes required in the search for less polluting energy sources and the need to acquire a strategic position in the energy sector make it essential to allow both research into this resource and its exploration in Spain. Therefore, this study aims to show the current situation of natural gas in a “transitory” context towards less aggressive energies to the environment as well as to explain how shale gas is produced and how extraction should be carried out in Spain with the problems that this would entail. The study also aims to analyze the citizens’ responses and concerns regarding the development of this technology.
[es]El cambio del paradigma energético a fuentes con menor huella de carbono, así como el desarrollo de las tecnologías y técnicas para su extracción, han colocado al gas de lutita en el punto de mira como recurso menos contaminante, abundante en el norte de España, y capaz de suplir en gran medida las necesidades actuales de abastecimiento energético que requiere el país. Sin embargo, existe una importante carencia de información integrada sobre el tema, con respecto a lo geológico, lo económico, lo ambiental y lo social. Como consecuencia de todo ello, se ha desarrollado una fuerte oposición pública que ha paralizado la exploración y la posible explotación de dicho recurso. Los cambios que exige el futuro en la búsqueda de fuentes de energía menos contaminantes y la necesidad de adquirir una posición estratégica en el sector energético, hacen ineludible permitir la investigación y exploración de este recurso en España. Por ello, este trabajo pretende mostrar el panorama actual que rodea al gas natural en un contexto de “tránsito” a energías menos agresivas con el medio ambiente, cómo se realiza su extracción (gas de lutita) y, como debería llevarse a cabo en España con los problemas que ello conllevaría, así como analizar la respuesta y preocupación de la ciudadanía frente a el desarrollo de esta tecnología.
[en] Highlights: • Propose optimal scheduling scheme for smart residential community. • Classify smart residential loads into different categories according to different demand response capabilities. • Reduce the peak load and peak-valley difference of residential load profile without bringing discomfort to the users. • Provide support for the decision of electricity pricing strategy under electric power market development. - Abstract: With the reformation of electric power market and the development of smart grid technology, smart residential community, a new residential demand side entity, tends to play an important role in demand response program. This paper presents a demand response scheduling model for the novel residential community incorporating the current circumstances and the future trends of demand response programs. In this paper, smart residential loads are firstly classified into different categories according to various demand response programs. Secondly, a complete scheduling scheme is modeled based on the dispatch of residential loads and distributed generation. The presented model reduces the cost of user’s electricity consumption and decreases the peak load and peak-valley difference of residential load profile without bringing discomfort to the users, through which residential community can participate in demand response efficiently. Besides, this model can also provide support for the decision of electricity pricing strategies under power market development.
[en] This article will be devoted to various aspects of DAE's performance, areas and problems that need more attention, their future plan on stepping up the production of nuclear energy by a big factor beyond their indigenous reach, and the consequent imperative and compulsion of opening the doors to the international market for bulk purchases
[en] Highlights: • Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carrier can store hydrogen in a dense form. • Dynamics of hydrogen release are crucial for application in energy storage. • Capability of reacting to fast changes in energy demand has been evaluated. • The combined system of release and purification unit can react very fast. - Abstract: Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carriers (LOHCs) are able to store hydrogen in a dense and safe form at ambient conditions. While storage of electrical energy in these carrier systems is one possible and attractive application, the dynamics of the load profile has been believed to represent a major challenge for this storage technology. Conversely, we report here that storage systems based on the LOHC technology are indeed able to deal with significant variations in power demand. This is due to the significant free volume in the LOHC release unit offering the opportunity to handle dynamic behavior by pressure changes. While pressure changes allow quick adaption of the power release on demand, changes in the reactor temperature lead to slow modification of the power output, as demonstrated in this work for hydrogen release from perhydro-dibenzyltoluene (H18-DBT).
[en] There is clear evidence of rising levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere caused by the profligate use of energy by the industrialised countries. This is threatening global climate change. This, as also continuously depleting fuel resources, is likely to deprive the developing world from meeting its yet unfulfilled development aspirations. Energy is an essential input for development, but growth rate in energy use in any country depends on its current development level. The energy use in the developed countries is projected to grow slowly, while it is growing very fast in the developing countries. It has been the experience of all the countries that development results in a shift from the use of non-commercial energy sources to commercial energy sources, particularly electricity. Thus the developing countries are experiencing a surge in electricity demand, both due to the growth in energy use and shift rom non-commercial to commercial energy sources
[en] Highlights: • We consider the role and impact of maximum demand charges in the presence of distributed generation. • We find that maximum demand charges can lead to welfare gains. • While maximum demand charges could lead to Pareto gains, they often reduce the welfare of consumers who undertake distributed generation. • Maximum demand charges have an ambiguous impact on distributed generation capacity investment. • Time-of-use pricing often secures larger welfare gains than maximum demand charges. - Abstract: We examine the role that maximum demand charges (MDCs) might play in ensuring the financial viability of utilities in the presence of ever-expanding distributed generation (DG) of electricity. We find that optimally-designed MDCs generally secure gains for consumers that do not undertake DG, and often secure gains for consumers that undertake DG. However, the welfare gains tend to be modest in plausible settings. Furthermore, time-of-use pricing often secures larger welfare gains than do MDCs.
[en] PESS Energy Assessment Tools: • Model for the Analysis of Energy Demand; • Wien Automatic System Planning Package; • Energy and Power Evaluation Programme; • Model for Energy Supply System Alternatives and their General Environmental impacts; • Financial Analysis of Electric Sector Expansion Plans; • Simplified Approach for Estimating Impacts of Electricity Generation.
[en] With the worldwide increasing energy demand, the securing of resources and energy supplies for the future has become a very important theme. There is, therefore, no doubt that the importance of nuclear development will continue to increase. So, I think we need to establish common design safety criteria as the basis of nuclear development, and also to promote the international network activities. At present, multilateral international cooperative frameworks for research and development of the next generation reactors are only INPRO and GIF. I would like to emphasize the significance of information exchange and a cooperative partnership between INPRO and GIF, and of taking advantage of the merits that both initiatives offer.