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[en] Critical comments are publicly made about nuclear power generation and the nuclear fuel cycle. This criticism is directed at three areas of concern: accidents, radioactive waste disposal, and proliferation of nuclear weapons. In addition, there are other comments that ask 'Why are there countries pushing for nuclear power generation when other countries around the world are giving it up?' and 'Will further efforts to develop new energy sources and energy conservation not eliminate the nneed for nuclear power generation?' Such critical comments appear in some media more often than those expressing other opinions. Is there really no tomorrow for nuclear power? This question is studied below. (author)
[en] The share of natural gas in Northeast Asia's energy mix is quite low despite that the region currently dominates the world LNG trade. In the long term, the region's rapid expansion of gas demand in the coming decades looks very likely, but the LNG dominance in the region's gas market will collapse in parallel with the introduction of a long distance pipeline gas. The most likely timing of pipeline gas introduction in Northeast Asian gas market seems to be during the second half of the next decade. (Author)
[en] In 2003, China's energy consumption amounted to 1678 million tonnes coal equivalent (MtCE), making China the world's second largest consumer behind only the United States. China is now also one of the largest oil importers in the world. With an economy that is expected to maintain a rate of growth of 7-8% for decades, China's role in the world energy market becomes increasingly influential. This makes it important to predict China's future demand for energy. The objective of this paper is to apply the Bayesian vector autoregressive methodology to forecast China's energy consumption and to discuss potential implications. The results of this paper suggest that total energy consumption should increase to 2173 MtCE in 2010, an annual growth rate of 3.8%, which is slightly slower than the average rate in the past decade. The slower growth reflects expected slower economic growth and a decline in energy consumption due to structural changes in the Chinese economy. (author)
[en] A brief overview is given of developments in the prices for natural gas and electricity. The increasing demand for energy in India and China effects the developments in the market for energy
[nl]Een kort overzicht wordt gegeven van de ontwikkelingen in de prijzen voor aardgas en elektriciteit. De grote vraag naar energie in China en India bepalen mede de ontwikkelingen in de markt voor energie
[en] Nuclear power can make an important contribution to meeting the growing global energy demand. While it is up to each country to decide whether or not to opt for nuclear power, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has a key role to play in ensuring that the development of nuclear power programmes takes place in a safe, efficient, responsible and sustainable manner. This article summarizes the support and services that the IAEA offers to those Member States considering or embarking on a new nuclear power programme. (Author)
[en] As energy demand and prices continue to grow, oil shale might help mitigate the energy crisis—it can widely be found all over the world but so far has not been widely used. Estonia is unique in the world for producing a large majority of energy out of oil shale and has been set as an example in numerous papers covering oil shale deposits, technology etc. This paper is the first to analyse oil shale energy related workforce and provides scenario forecasts of the labour demand for the Estonian energy sector in 2010–2020. The contribution of the paper is twofold. First, the paper provides a valuable insight into oil shale energy related workforce, enabling to take into consideration the educational needs in countries where oil shale industry might be set up. Second, methodology-wise, the paper relates labour demand and supply to different scenarios of energy production capacities. The results illustrate problems related to aging of the workforce in energy production. If the existing trends continue in educational attainment in Estonia, there will be a serious shortage of high-skilled engineering and manufacturing specialists. Our method provides a simple yet reliable enough way to check for such problems early enough. - Highlights: ► This paper analyses oil shale energy related workforce and provides scenario forecasts. ► This is the first study to investigate the workforce related to oil shale energy production. ► The main workforce-related problem in the sector is ageing of the workforce. ► Workers immigrating to the sector during the Soviet times are at the retirement age. ► There will be a serious shortage of engineers for energy sector in the near future.
[en] Energy efficiency is the sum total of various influential factors resulting from the technical, technological, economic, financial, legislative and organisational conditions that exist in each of the transition countries. It is not possible to achieve an efficient usage of energy as in the Western European countries unless the total efficiency of managing all other resources equals the same level. Therefore, in the preceding period only the most successful companies managed to take considerable steps as regards the enhancement of energy efficiency, i.e. companies present at the European market and equalling the criteria of the their competitors. The problem of energy efficiency can be explained with the help pf a number of factors influencing decision making of a company's management or a citizen. Those factors create a framework of events, i.w. an appropriate or an inappropriate atmosphere for the implementation of the measures to increase energy efficiency. Attitudes for and against certain activities develop in an atmosphere according to which individuals have to make decisions. Non-economic prices, non-existence of tariff systems or systems with socially influenced prices or tariffs, have a demotivating effect on all the activities in the field of energy efficiency. The existing legislation of the transition countries often enough neglects the problem of energy management, relating to either building planning and construction, or network systems, renewable sources or consumption standards at the market. The financial situation is also an important element when dealing with energy efficiency projects; high interest rates and major problems with the insurance of necessary financial funds impede their realisation. The support of expert and consulting institutions is a precondition for a successful choice of measures, and the educational system should take over its extremely important role at each of the education levels. Energy efficiency programmes cannot be launched without an active policy of governments and local communities, both in the legislative as in the financial sense. An adequate legislative regulation of this field, support funds, and fiscal measures are all included in the current practice of the developed countries. Experiences show that the speeding-up of the energy efficiency programme begins on the state level so that later on it could develop according to market rules. A new chapter in approaching energy efficiency began with the opening of the electric energy markets. It will be necessary to find new forms of support projects for the improvement of energy efficiency corresponding to the development of electric energy and natural gas markets
[en] This study aims to examine the energy efficiency of the manufacturing industry of Korea by using the extended Divisia index decomposition of Choi and Ang (2012). First, we applied the Sato–Vartia index decomposition to the energy intensity of the manufacturing industry in Korea. Second, we attributed the growth rate of aggregate energy intensity to 10 sub-manufacturing industries through two channels: real energy intensity and structural change. The result of the decomposition illustrates that the aggregate energy intensity index decreased in the period 1981–2010. The index decomposition analysis demonstrates that real energy intensity decreased by 85.85%, whereas structural change increased energy intensity by 69.37% over the same period of time. The negative effect of structural change is partly a result of the increasing portion of energy intensive industry in manufacturing. The result reflects that industrial structure in Korea can be an important aspect for improving energy efficiency. - Highlights: • Divisia index decomposition is applied to energy intensity in Korean manufacturing. • The result shows the aggregate energy intensity index decreased from 1981 to 2010. • It also shows real energy intensity decreased, but structural change increased. • Positive structural change is attributed to energy intensive sectors of manufacturing. • The industrial structure tends to be important for improving energy efficiency
[en] Using large-sample high temporal resolution data from a smart metering field trial, we econometrically estimate the effects of providing feedback in addition to smart metering devices. We compare consumption levels and patterns between a pilot group that received feedback in addition to smart metering devices and a control group with only smart metering devices. We investigate, in particular, the persistence of the effects and whether the effects differ between periods of high and low household occupancy, i.e. between morning and evening periods, and between weekdays and weekend days. The findings show that feedback is effective, leading to about 5% electricity consumption reduction that is persistent over an eleven month period. Furthermore, our results show that this reduction affects both low and high occupancy periods, suggesting that feedback is associated with rather permanent changes in habitual behavior and/or investments in energy-efficient technologies. - Highlights: • Analysis of feedback on household electricity use relying on high resolution data. • Average feedback corresponds with savings of around 5% on weekdays and weekends. • Effects of feedback are persistent during the eleven month field trial. • In percentage terms, feedback effects are rather stable over the hours of the day.
[en] Events occurring in the oil industry during 2004 have contributed to ensuring that the problems of estimating oil reserves and world oil production peaks have been extensively debated. Here, we have developed an integrated approach to these themes, in which we demonstrate that they are inseparable, comparing estimations of ultimate recoverable reserves with data concerning changes in combined production levels. The diagnosis concerning world production is therefore considered in light of the situation with regard to its three main components: OPEC, the FSU and other non-OPEC producers. We argue that only a segmented approach to the 'peak oil' (such as that which we have adopted via the reference system presented here), is relevant when considering and anticipating the consequences of the depletion of oil reserves upon the equilibrium of oil markets and price setting mechanisms. (author)