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[en] In order to reach the EU: s 20–20–20 primary energy savings target, energy efficiency needs to increase. Previous research on energy use and energy efficiency has focused mainly on the diffusion of energy efficient technologies. The discrepancy between optimal and actual implementation of energy efficient technologies has been illustrated in numerous articles and is often referred to as the energy efficiency gap. However, efficient technologies are not the only ways to increase energy efficiency. Empirical studies have found that a cost-effective way to improve energy efficiency is to combine investments in energy-efficient technologies with continuous energy management practices. By including energy management into an estimated energy efficiency potential this paper introduces an extended energy efficiency gap, mainly in manufacturing industries and the commercial sector. The inclusion of energy management components in future energy policy will play an important role if the energy savings targets for 2020, and later 2050, are to be met in the EU. - Highlights: ► Theoretical contributions examining the role of energy management have been rare. ► Studies have illustrated that adaptation levels of energy management are low. ► By including energy management this paper introduces an extended energy efficiency gap.
[en] Buildings are crucial to addressing energy problems because they are large consumers of end-use energy, and potential exists to dramatically improve their efficiencies. However, the pace of innovation in buildings is generally characterized as inadequate, despite the implementation of an array of policy instruments aimed at promoting efficiency. The literature on innovation in the building industry provides several explanations including: fragmented decision-making, principal agent problems, inadequate information, and limited learning across heterogeneous projects. We investigate the innovation process for buildings in the U.S. with a case study of patenting in energy management control systems (EMCS) for commercial buildings and programmable thermostats (PT) for residential buildings. Using U.S. patent data, we find that: (1) patenting activity peaked around 1980, subsequently declined, and then increased considerably in the past decade; (2) commercial, rather than residential, buildings account for the recent increase; and (3) building control technologies have benefitted from inventions originating outside the industry, notably from electronics and computers, with a shift toward the latter in recent years. - Highlights: ► We investigate the innovation process for buildings in the U.S. using patents. ► We use commercial and residential building controls technology as a case study. ► Patenting peaked around 1980, declined, and then increased in the past decade. ► Commercial building control patents account for most of the recent increase. ► Inventions in electronics and computers have led to innovation in building controls.
[en] This article conceptualizes the energy problems facing society from a global governance perspective. It argues that a notion of 'global energy governance,' taken to mean international collective action efforts undertaken to manage and distribute energy resources and provide energy services, offers a meaningful and useful framework for assessing energy-related challenges. The article begins by exploring the concepts of governance, global governance, and global energy governance. It then examines some of the existing institutions in place to establish and carry out rules and norms governing global energy problems and describes the range of institutional design options available to policymakers. It briefly traces the role of a selection of these institutions, from inter-governmental organizations to summit processes to multilateral development banks to global action networks, in responding to energy issues, and points out their strengths and weaknesses. The article concludes by analyzing how the various approaches to global governance differ in their applicability to addressing the conundrums of global energy problems.
[en] This study investigates intervention strategy in stimulating energy-saving behavior to achieve energy neutral urban development. A tree structure overview of potential interventions classified into three categories is revealed. An integrated behaviour model is developed reflecting the relations between behaviour and influence factors. A latent class model is used to identify segments of local residents who differ regarding their preferences for interventions. Data are collected from a sample of residents in the Eindhoven region of the Netherlands in 2010. The results indicate that social-demographic characteristics, knowledge, motivation and context factors play important roles in energy-saving behaviour. Specifically, four segments of residents in the study area were identified that clearly differed in their preferences of interventions: cost driven residents, conscious residents, ease driven residents and environment minded residents. These findings emphasize that the intervention strategy should be focused on specific target groups to have the right mixture of interventions to achieve effective results on stimulating them to save energy. - Highlights: ► A latent class model to identify segments with preferred energy-saving interventions. ► An integrated energy-saving behavior model of casual relations. ► A tree structure overview of potential interventions
[en] In spite of having been first introduced in the last half of the ninetieth century, the debate about the possible rebound effects from energy efficiency improvements is still an open question in the economic literature. This paper contributes to the existing research on this issue proposing an unbiased measure for economy-wide rebound effects. The novelty of this economy-wide rebound measure stems from the fact that not only actual energy savings but also potential energy savings are quantified under general equilibrium conditions. Our findings indicate that the use of engineering savings instead of general equilibrium potential savings downward biases economy-wide rebound effects and upward-biases backfire effects. The discrepancies between the traditional indicator and our proposed measure are analysed in the context of the Spanish economy.
[en] In a recent study, Ang (Energy Policy 32 (2004)) compared various index decomposition analysis methods and concluded that the logarithmic mean Divisia index method is the preferred method. Since the literature on the method tends to be either too technical or specific for most potential users, this paper provides a practical guide that includes the general formulation process, summary tables for easy reference and examples
[en] For many years, energy models have been used in developed or developing countries to satisfy different needs in energy planning. One of major problems against energy planning and consequently energy models is uncertainty, spread in different economic, political and legal dimensions of energy planning. Confronting uncertainty, energy planners have often used two well-known strategies. The first strategy is stochastic programming, in which energy system planners define different scenarios and apply an explicit probability of occurrence to each scenario. The second strategy is Minimax Regret strategy that minimizes regrets of different decisions made in energy planning. Although these strategies have been used extensively, they could not flexibly and effectively deal with the uncertainties caused by fuzziness. 'Fuzzy Linear Programming (FLP)' is a strategy that can take fuzziness into account. This paper tries to demonstrate the method of application of FLP for optimization of supply energy system in Iran, as a case study. The used FLP model comprises fuzzy coefficients for investment costs. Following the mentioned purpose, it is realized that FLP is an easy and flexible approach that can be a serious competitor for other confronting uncertainties approaches, i.e. stochastic and Minimax Regret strategies. (author)
[en] The UK building stock has seen major changes in the last 50 years, in its form, fabric and function. The context is the expansion of the building stock and built infrastructure, which takes place in most areas at 1-2% per year, with the implication that up to 75% of the dwellings of the year 2050 already exist now. This is a major challenge. The energy performance of much of this stock is generally low, while its economic, social and cultural values are often high. The purpose of this review is to provide a brief outline of the state of knowledge of the existing building stock, and of potential advances in that knowledge. We follow a knowledge mapping approach, set out on several axes. The first is an axis from buildings as physical forms, to buildings as containers of socio-economic activity. Another axis spans between existing buildings, renovations and adaptations, and new buildings. A third axis is that of scale, from building components to large-scale settlements. There are many possible combinations of these parameters. Here we focus on those that are most relevant to the SEMBE goals of sustainable energy management across the whole building stock
[en] We study empirically the effectiveness of a customer information program to decrease energy demand by increasing efficient electricity use. This demand side management (DSM) program aims at reducing the lack of information on the customers' side that is documented in related literature. We study the Irish DSM program which is particularly well suited to investigate this issue as strategic behavior is ruled out in this setting for both customers and suppliers. On the customers' side because information programs allow only for a limited substitution of own effort. On the producers' side because the specificity of the Irish case left no room for strategic behavior. We find that providing customers with information reduced overall electricity demand by roughly 7%, as well as reducing demand fluctuations over the year. Further, we find that the DSM program had a larger impact upon long run demand, with consumers' short run demand behavior not being changed significantly
[en] Despite numerous researchers having investigating the development of wind power, the correlation between the elements influencing wind power development has often been ignored. Hence, this research hopes to incorporate both structural equation model (SEM) and fuzzy cognitive map (FCM) to identify a mutual relationship between the various elements, so as to provide feasible recommendations for management strategies. Initially, SEM is used for identification of correlation between the elements and indicating their direction and strength. A standardized causal coefficient from SEM was then used to create an FCM illustrating the effect of the status of one component on the status of another component. The research results pointed out that “policy” would be the major challenge faced by wind power development, as well as the main cause for other obstructions. Therefore, under the objective of maximizing economic benefits, short-term strategies can adopt suitable measures for the two dimensions of “technology” and “environment”; and while mid-term strategies must consider the indirect influences from “social” dimension, long-term strategies must work on “policy”. - Highlights: • Apply SEM to explain interrelationships between the obstacles of wind power. • Adopt ‘what if’ simulation analysis to explore the optimal management strategies. • Intermediary variables were existed in the potential paths. • The results prove that correlations do exist between the obstacles. • The “policy aspect” is the main obstacle faced by wind power