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[en] The nexus among real income, energy consumption, financial development, and carbon emission has broadly conferred area in energy and environmental literature. However, there is no study in the literature which investigates the moderating role of financial development between real income, energy consumption, and CO2 emission in Pakistan. This study reveals the role of financial development as a moderator in the conventional environmental Kuznets curve (EKC). To achieve the objectives of this study, two approaches are employed, (i) with main effects and (ii) with interaction variables, using autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach in the case of Pakistan covering the period 1970 to 2016. Findings of the empirical analysis confirm the EKC hypothesis in the first case (without interaction effect) and our second estimations (with interaction effect) show that financial development significantly moderates the association of real output with CO2 emission (both for the long run and short run). The negative effect of financial development on carbon emission reveals to efficacious energy management with effective environmental performance. More precisely, the results of second estimations reveal that all three interaction variables are statistically significant but the EKC curve is no more. Thus, the current study proposes that the moderating effect of the financial sectors may be the possible reason which has been ignored by prior researchers and they found mix results regarding the existence of EKC in Pakistan. In addition, the Granger causality test confirms the feedback effect between real income and carbon emission and one-way causality from all the three interaction variables and financial development to CO2 emission. Lastly, this study posits some important policy inferences in the perspective of new economic policy formation in Pakistan.
[en] Outline of the School: Purpose: To provide a international educational experience to young professionals from newcomer countries seeking to develop nuclear power plants. Target: Officials from policymaking and regulatory bodies, nuclear engineers and researchers
[en] Energy management in home is one of the major issue now-a-days. There are different types of load like shiftable, non-shiftable, seasonal loads and auxiliary loads. In this research article, an energy management system is proposed for home which helps to schedule different loads on the basis of their types and price. It will help to minimize the cost of electricity by shifting load from peak time to off peak time. Emission will be minimized by charging penalty by adopting multi-objective optimization. Each source of energy has its own price of penalty with respect to time. Penalty is charged to minimize the use of sources like commercial supply and diesel generators which emits hazardous gases. In proposed model, user will get electricity from commercial supply, diesel generators and solar panels to provide continuous supply of electricity to fulfil the energy demand. The shiftable loads will be shifted from peak time to off peak time and higher price source to lower price source to minimize the overall price. In this research, we have proposed an EEIR (Economically Effective and Intelligently Responsive) HEMS (Home Energy Management System) by solving multi-objective optimization problem from BILP (Binary Integer Linear Programming) using branch and bound algorithm. (author)
[en] In this paper, the author highlights and discusses four factors which weigh on the use of electric power, and are related to obstacles to an efficient climate policy. The first one is the non respect of the European directive on the assessment of building energy performance in the DPE (this is adverse to electric heating). The second one is the RT 2012 thermal regulation which is inefficient for the reduction of CO2 emission and of energy consumptions, and favours natural gas. The third one is a social injustice which results from an undue tax (the CSPE) which has been multiplied by 4,5 since 2016 and affect housings and office premises which are using electric heating. The fourth one is the assessment of thermal and climate performance of these housings which in fact depreciates their property value
[en] Steam is widely utilized for thermal energy supply in the industrial fields. It is vital to be aware of the flow rate of the steam at demand end from the viewpoint of energy management. The practical steam piping of the factories often have a wet steam flow resulting from heat loss, heat supply, work, and so forth. It is well known that the measurement error of the steam flow rate is caused by the steam wetness. However, the method for estimating the measurement error has not been established yet since it is hard to evaluate the effects of the steam wetness quantitatively in plants and factories. A clamp-on type ultrasonic steam flow meter now under development is useful for the factory since it is not necessary to pipe processing. We have conducted the steam flow test with this clamp-on type ultrasonic flow meter and found some characteristics. In this paper, we conducted the steam flow test with the same flow meter to the larger-bore piping than our previous studies. As a result, we clarified the differences of the characteristics that we have found in the former experiment. (author)
[en] With the aim of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, technologies are increasingly being electrified. Examples include electric cars and heat pumps. However, fluctuating power generation from wind and sun and the irregular operation of combustion power plants already lead to environmental profiles of the power supply that vary over time. For electricity consuming products, it is therefore highly relevant when and with which mix the electricity is generated. The HD-LCA method (Hourly Defined Life Cycle Assessment) makes it possible to determine environmental profiles of the current and future power supply in hourly resolution. The electricity and heat generation of individual power plants, start-up and shut-down processes and varying efficiencies and emissions at partial load are taken into account. The application of the method to the example of the German electricity supply in 2014 shows that the hourly resolution of the greenhouse potential and other environmental impacts entails significant deviations compared to annual mean values. The HD-LCA method contributes to the ecological design of the power supply and the development of ecological products through the realistic life cycle assessment.
[de]Mit dem Ziel der Senkung des Treibhausgasausstoßes werden Technologien zunehmend elektrifiziert. Beispiele hierfür sind Elektroautos und Wärmepumpen. Die fluktuierende Stromerzeugung aus Wind und Sonne und der unregelmäßige Betrieb von Verbrennungskraftwerken führen jedoch schon heute zu zeitlich variierenden Umweltprofilen der Stromversorgung. Für stromverbrauchende Produkte ist es daher hochrelevant, wann und mit welchem Mix der Strom erzeugt wird. Die HD-LCA-Methode (Hourly Defined Life Cycle Assessment) ermöglicht es, Umweltprofile der heutigen und zukünftigen Stromversorgung in stündlicher Auflösung zu ermitteln. Es werden die Strom- und Wärmeerzeugung einzelner Kraftwerke, An- und Abfahrvorgänge und in Teillast variierende Wirkungsgrade und Emissionen berücksichtigt. Die Methodenanwendung am Beispiel der deutschen Stromversorgung 2014 zeigt, dass die stündliche Auflösung des Treibhauspotentials und weiterer Umweltwirkungen signifikante Abweichungen im Vergleich zu jährlichen Mittelwerten mit sich bringt. Die HD-LCA-Methode leistet durch die realitätsnahe Ökobilanzierung einen Beitrag zur ökologischen Gestaltung der Stromversorgung und zur Entwicklung ökologischer Produkte.
[en] We are committed to a zero-carbon Europe by 2050, free of fossil and nuclear energy. By its size, Europe has the means to achieve this. It has the capacity. These commitments will be met without resorting to the artifices of the carbon market
[fr]Nous nous engageons pour une Europe zero carbone en 2050, liberee des energies fossiles et nucleaires. Par sa taille, l'Europe en a les moyens. Elle en a la capacite. Ces engagements seront tenus sans recourir aux artifices du marche carbone
[en] Energy has become a strategic factor in the global policy, a vital component and a cost factor for economic development and society's general progress. In the conditions of energy primary sources reduction, the energy sustainability can be reached by increasing the efficiency of its production, provision and consumption. Romania's energy system consists of a balanced and diverse portfolio of energy generating capacities, which includes: classic fossil fuel-fired power plants, one nuclear power plant (with two CANDU6 reactors in operation) and renewable capacities (hydro, wind and solar photovoltaic). Nuclear energy is a strategic option for Romania, due to its ability to assure the national energy independence and to have a significant contribution in meeting the EU decarbonation targets. The paper represents a preliminary study on the cost competitiveness of an SMR using LFR nuclear technology comparatively with competing classic technologies using fossil fuels (coal and gas) for electricity generation in Romania. The economic analysis was based on Levelized Unit Electricity Cost (LUEC), calculated using the IAEA NEST (NESA economic support tool) program. Preliminary results confirmed that in Romania's energy system, under the specific conditions defined, electricity produced by an SMR using LFR technology is cost competitive against the one generated by coal and gas fired power plants. (author).
[en] The development of the quantum Hall effect in condensed matter physics that breaks time-reversal symmetry by magnetic biasing has inspired its analog in classical nonreciprocal acoustics. Nonreciprocal acoustic propagation is highly desirable to control acoustics in isolation, broadband unidirectional transmission, and topologically robust to structural disorders or defects. So far, these fascinating properties have been investigated through fan-induced moving media, acoustic capacitance adjustment and acoustic metamaterials. However, these may be associated with disadvantages including extra noise and limited dynamic controlling performance. Here we overcome these limitations by introducing heat-induced natural convection into acoustic circulator, and demonstrate that the classical acoustic circulator with thermal management can realize robust nonreciprocal acoustic propagation. The concept of combining heat-induced natural convection and aeroacoustics creates a new practical paradigm and increases the feasibility for nonreciprocal acoustics due to merits of dynamic control, versatile topological structures, and miniaturization in the absence of moving parts. (paper)