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[en] Injecting hydrogen in the natural gas grid poses a number of problems. Does hydrogen hold the key to the great energy transition to come? France and other countries believe this to be the case, and have chosen to invest heavily in the sector. Such spending will be needed to solve the many issues raised by this energy carrier. One such issue is containers, since hydrogen tends to damage metallic materials. At Mines Saint-etienne, Frederic Christien and his teams are trying to answer these questions.
[fr]L'injection d'hydrogene dans le reseau de gaz naturel n'est pas sans poser certains problemes. L'hydrogene represente-t-il la cle de la future grande transition energetique? C'est la conviction de la France, ainsi que d'autres pays qui ont choisi d'investir massivement dans cette filiere. Un budget qui ne sera pas de trop pour resoudre les nombreux problemes souleves par ce vecteur energetique. Parmi eux figure la question de son conditionnement, l'hydrogene ayant tendance a endommager les materiaux metalliques. a Mines Saint-etienne, Frederic Christien et ses equipes tentent d'y apporter des elements de reponse.
[en] A number of scientists and other professionals have pushed for nuclear energy, arguing it would help mitigate climate change. The scientists had gathered at the ICAPP 2019 congress in Juan-les-Pins, France, to sign a declaration. There were forty nuclear associations who demanded public investment in the nuclear sector as it has experienced almost stagnant public investment since 2000 (around $4 billion per year for nuclear research and development) and private players too have shown little interest. The scientists gave several reasons for the lack of enthusiasm among the private sector. These included mixed or negative political signals as well as electricity market designs that have had a negative impact on the business case for nuclear energy. They underlined new reactor technologies like small modular reactors, Gen IV reactors and new applications like desalination, district heating, process heat for industry and hydrogen production and emphasised on the need of resources for research and development. The meet also raised the issue of R and D infrastructure, which has become obsolete and needs to be renewed. The statement demanded doubling of public investment in nuclear-related R and D and innovation within the next five years, with a focus on innovative applications of advanced nuclear systems to enable the clean energy mix of the future.
[en] The Orano group is a recognized international operator in the field of nuclear materials, mastering cutting-edge technologies and offering its customers high value-added products and services throughout the entire fuel cycle. It thus contributes to the production of low carbon electricity. With profound changes at work in a world facing climate, energy, economic and health challenges, Orano has sought to build a renewed strategic vision A collective undertaking over a period of more than 18 months. In 2020, the Group carried out a collective exercise in co-construction involving the Executive Committee, 1,300 of the Group's managers and co-workers, and more than 130 external stakeholders (customers, suppliers, elected officials, etc.) to reshape its strategic vision. The outcome of this collective reflection was the definition of a purpose, a set of commitments and a road-map to 2030, which now constitute our vision for the company. Through its actions, Orano intends to contribute to the fight against global warming, to the preservation of natural resources and to human health, all of which are major challenges of our century, and Orano is making them central to its purpose: 'To develop know-how in the transformation and control of nuclear materials, for the climate, for a healthy and resource-efficient world, now and tomorrow'. The Group's purpose was validated by the Board of Directors. To meet each of its commitments, Orano has set objectives for the period up to 2030, a 10-year horizon compatible with the transformation that the group wishes to carry out. In order to give a strong impetus to this approach, quantified markers have been set by the teams for as early as 2025.
[en] GRTgaz is a European leader in natural gas transportation and a world expert in gas systems. In France, the company operates more than 32,000 km of buried pipelines to transport gas from suppliers to consumers connected to its network: managers of public distribution services that provide gas to municipalities, power plants, industrial sites. GRTgaz has a public service mission to ensure the continuity of supply of natural gas. Along with its subsidiaries - Elengy, the European leader in LNG terminal services, and GRTgaz Deutschland, the operator of the MEGAL transmission network in Germany - GRTgaz plays a key role in the European gas infrastructure scene. The company also exports its know-how internationally, in particular thanks to the services developed by its research centre, RICE (Research and Innovation Center for Energy). As a player in the energy transition, GRTgaz invests in innovative solutions to accommodate as much renewable gas as possible on its network, including hydrogen. The goal is to provide support for these new sectors, and thus contribute to achieving carbon neutrality. This brochure presents GRTgaz assets in 2019: A discreet and efficient network; Commercial and operational excellence (Tailored and scalable services, Focused on needs, A regulated activity, An integrated research centre: RICE, Fuel oil-gas and coal-gas conversion); A responsible company; The energy of all possibilities (NGV and bio-NGV as ecological and competitive fuels, Power to Gas for storing renewable energy, Biogas as a local renewable energy); Beyond French borders (Research and cooperation, GRTgaz Deutschland, Brussels).
[en] Primary energy production from biogas in the EU28 countries has increased only slightly since 2017. According to EurObserv'ER, output reached 16.6 Mtoe in 2019, which is marginally higher than in 2018, but around the same level as in 2017. The rollout of regulations less supportive of using food-type energy crops for producing biogas has fuelled this general trend and has been compounded by the limitation on the capacity allocated to biogas tenders and less attractive biogas electricity payment terms. Nonetheless some member countries have posted positive output growth, thanks to their determination to both encourage biomethane injection and recover energy from fermentable waste.
[fr]Le niveau production d'energie primaire a partir de biogaz des pays de l'UE a 28 a peu evolue depuis 2017. Selon EurObserv'ER, elle a atteint un niveau de production de 16,6 Mtep en 2019, en tres legere croissance par rapport a 2018, mais du meme ordre qu'en 2017. Cette tendance generale s'explique par la mise en place de reglementations moins favorables a l'utilisation des cultures energetiques de type alimentaire pour la production de biogaz, ainsi que par la limitation de la puissance allouee aux appels d'offres biogaz et par des conditions de remuneration de l'electricite biogaz moins incitatives. La production de quelques pays membres affiche toutefois une croissance positive, grace a une double volonte de favoriser l'injection de biomethane et la valorisation des dechets fermentescibles.
[en] Biogas has crossed a new threshold in the European Union, as EurObserv'ER puts primary energy output in 2016 at more than 16 million tonnes of oil equivalent. Methanization plants purpose-designed for energy recovery, such as farm biogas, co-digestion biogas and industrial biogas now produce almost three-quarters of the total biogas output leaving landfill sites and wastewater sludge treatment plants far behind.
[fr]Avec une production d'energie primaire, evaluee par EurObserv'ER a plus de 16 millions de tonnes equivalent petrole en 2016, le biogaz a franchi un nouveau palier au sein de l'Union europeenne. Les unites de methanisation specialement concues pour la valorisation energetique, comme le biogaz a la ferme, le biogaz de codigestion et le biogaz industriel, representent desormais pres des trois quarts de la production totale de biogaz, loin devant le biogaz de decharge et le biogaz issu du traitement des boues d'epuration.
[en] This publication proposes the 22. World Energy congress statements (official statement, the discussions of the future energy leader's programme, contribution of young French students and researchers, what works and does not work in energy efficiency policies in the world) and indicates its publications (the World Energy Trilemna, and World Energy Scenarios to 2050). The contributions of French speakers are then proposed on the following themes: vision and scenarios for the future, identifying business opportunities with resources and technologies, the energy trilemma or policy solutions to secure prosperity, and securing a sustainable energy future. Other contributions by company and government representatives are provided.
[en] The World Energy Council (WEC), in collaboration with global management consulting firm Oliver Wyman, have prepared the fifth edition of the World Energy Trilemma report. This second of a two-part series of reports examines the drivers and risks preventing the development of sustainable energy systems. It then recommends an Agenda for Change to address these risks and to accelerate a global transition to more diversified, and therefore sustainable, energy systems that will present opportunities for economic growth. In response to the 2012 World Energy Trilemma report, describing the policies that more than 40 energy industry CEOs and senior executives consider are necessary to advance sustainable energy systems, the 2013 report describes what public sector stakeholders believe they need from the energy industry. It is based on interviews with more than 50 energy and environmental ministers, policymakers, government officials, representatives from multilateral development banks, international non-governmental organisations, and experts from more than 25 countries. The report also reflects the results of the 2013 Energy Sustainability Index prepared by the WEC in partnership with Oliver Wyman. The Index evaluates how well countries balance the three often conflicting goals of energy sustainability - energy security, energy equity, and environmental sustainability - what the WEC defines as the 'energy trilemma'. Each of the three legs of the trilemma is vital to the economic and social development of a country. Secure energy is critical to fuelling economic growth, energy must be accessible and affordable at all levels of society, and the impact of energy production and energy use on the environment needs to be minimised to combat climate change and maintain good air and water quality. Based on an analysis of 60 data sets used to develop 23 indicators across 129 countries (including 37 non-WEC member countries), the Index provides a comparative ranking and a balance score for how well countries manage the trade-offs among the three core elements of sustainable energy systems - energy security, energy equity, and environmental sustainability. The rank measures overall performance on the Index. For the first time the balance score highlights how well a country manages the trade-offs between each of the dimensions
[en] In May 2020, Reclaim Finance publishes a report revealing that the European Central Bank's corporate asset purchases significantly finances all fossil fuels. based on its study of the ECB's list of corporate holdings (CSPP and PEPP), Reclaim Finance shows that quantitative easing strongly benefits to firms from the most polluting sectors (fossil fuels, air and automobile sectors...). Titled 'Quantitative easing and climate: The ECB's dirty secret', the report shows that the principle of market neutrality leads the ECB to support companies, which because of their massive activities in the fossil fuel sector, are a stumbling block for the EU to achieve its own climate targets. Reclaim Finance calls on Christine Lagarde and the Eurosystem governors to put an end to asset purchases of fossil fuel companies. The main points of the report: For several years, and even more today in the context of the Covid-19 crisis, the ECB massively uses quantitative easing to fulfill its missions. With the Eurosystem banks, it held 2783 billion euros in assets at the end of March 2020 and planned on buying 1100 billion in a single year. 63% of the ECB's corporate asset purchases go to high-carbon emitters, and the asset purchases decided in response to the Covid-19 pandemic alone could finance high-carbon emitters to up to 132 billion, therefore crushing hopes for a 'green recovery'. The ECB bought assets from 38 fossil fuel corporations. Of these corporations, 10 are active in the coal sector for a total installed power capacity of 66 000 MW, more than all of the French nuclear reactors. Major oil and gas companies, including Shell and Total, that plan on increasing their productions respectively by 38% and 12% from 2018 to 2030, are on the list of assets bought by the ECB. Shell's case is especially problematic. It is one of the 4 enterprises of the ECB's portfolio active in shale oil and gas and could multiply its production in the area by 12. In May 2020, Reclaim Finance publishes a report revealing that the European Central Bank's corporate asset purchases significantly finances all fossil fuels. Four months later, the NGO reveals in a new memo that companies supported by the ECB greatly contribute to fossil gas expansion in Europe and worldwide. Titled 'Quantitative easing and climate 2: Fueling the fossil gas frenzy', the document shows that the ECB's asset purchase lock us in a fossil dependent world by supporting companies that greatly contribute to the expansion of the fossil gas sector. Reclaim Finance calls on Christine Lagarde and the Eurosystem governors to put an end to asset purchases of fossil fuel companies. The NGO underlines doing so in a few years would mean favoring the continuous development of the fossil gas sector. The main points of the report: The ECB's quantitative easing supports 24 gas companies operating 123 gas power plants, extracting gas from 48 sites in Europe, and operating 96 gas pipelines and 97 LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) terminals worldwide. Companies supported by ECB purchases plan on building 62 new gas infrastructures, with 4 companies responsible for 45 projects: Total, Shell, Engie and Enel. Total and Shell alone are developing 36 projects.
[fr]Ce rapport etudie la liste des actifs detenus par la BCE au titre des achats d'actifs d'entreprises (CSPP et PEPP) et montre que le quantitative easing beneficie aujourd'hui fortement aux entreprises des secteurs les plus polluants (energies fossiles, aerien, automobile...). Le BCE a achete les titres de 38 entreprises des energies fossiles. Parmi elles, 10 entreprises sont liees au secteur du charbon, pour une puissance totale installee d'environ 66 000 MW, soit plus que l'ensemble des reacteurs nucleaires francais en service. Le charbon n'est pas le seul probleme: des majors petrolieres et gazieres, dont Shell et Total, qui prevoient d'accroitre leurs productions de 38 et 12% de 2018 a 2030, figurent dans la liste des titres achetes au titre du CSPP et PEPP. Shell prevoit meme d'exploiter des reserves de petrole et gaz de schiste atteignant 12 fois sa production actuelle dans le domaine. Au-dela des energies fossiles, le portefeuille de la BCE fait la part belle aux activites a forte intensite carbone. 63% des actifs achetes seraient ceux d'entreprises polluantes, soit jusqu'a 132 milliards de financements polluants pour les seuls rachats lances en reponse a la crise du Covid-19. Une semaine avant la reunion des gouverneurs de la BCE du 10 septembre 2020, les nouvelles recherches de Reclaim Finance montrent qu'attendre 2022 pour conditionner le quantitative easing nous enferme dans un monde dependant au gaz naturel. En effet, les 1700 milliards d'euros d'actifs achetes par la BCE en 2020-2021 continueront a soutenir la croissance du secteur gazier et de ses grands developpeurs de projets.
[en] In a study on vigilance in the supply chains of minerals used in the energy transition, Sherpa highlights the shortcomings of the measures presented in the vigilance plans of nine French companies, more than three years after the adoption of the Duty of Vigilance Law. Fighting global warming requires a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions to reach the climate targets set out in the Paris agreement. However, the current implementation of the energy transition, through the development of electric mobility or the deployment of renewable energies, requires increasing supplies of certain minerals used to produce batteries or solar panels. The World Bank has identified at least 17 minerals essential for these technologies, such as lithium, cobalt, and neodymium. Yet the extraction and supply of these minerals can lead to environmental and human rights adverse impacts. The Business and Human Rights Resource Centre has documented more than 160 cases of human rights and environmental allegations for the 37 largest companies involved in the extraction and use of minerals crucial in the transition to low-carbon technologies. Sherpa sought to verify whether the vigilance plans published by nine French companies subject to the Duty of Vigilance Law contain reasonable and adequate vigilance measures to identify such risks and prevent such impacts. In particular, our research shows that the content of the vigilance plans analyzed is insufficient, as the risks associated with these minerals rarely appear in these plans, and the listed measures are often imprecise and detached from the companies' activities. Companies often limit themselves to presenting tools that they were already using before the law existed, such as audits or certifications, but which in practice do not make it possible to avoid damage linked to the use of these minerals.