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[en] This publication presents a quarterly review of power generation from photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): number of facilities and total connected load, quarterly and annual distribution of new connections, distribution of existing and new photovoltaic power plants per power range, trend of the photovoltaic solar power growth, pending projects (number and power), detailed regional results (number of facilities, power, newly connected loads), annual and quarterly evolution of power generation and connected loads, results revision.
[en] This document presents a comprehensive review of the 2020 market of domestic wood-fuel space heating appliances. Content: 1 - Methodology (questionnaire, sales components, synthesis); 2 - Domestic wood-fuel space heating appliances market: Global market figures (closed hearths and inserts segment, wood stoves segment, cooking stoves segment, boilers segment), sales evolution since 2010; 3 - Wood stoves segment (appliances, sales evolution); 4 - Closed hearths and inserts segment (appliances, sales evolution); 5 - Boilers segment (appliances, sales evolution); 6 - Cooking stoves segment (appliances, sales evolution); 7 - Synthesis.
[en] This publication presents the wind energy situation of continental France and overseas territories during the Fourth quarter 2020: number of newly connected wind farms and their production capacities (annual and quarterly evolution), distribution of wind farms per power range, wind farm park evolution trend, onshore and offshore pending projects (number and power), detailed regional results (number of farms, power, newly connected loads), annual and quarterly evolution of power generation and connected loads.
[en] This publication presents the bio-methane industry situation of continental France during the Fourth quarter 2020: bio-methane production facilities (number, production capacity per type of facility), annual and quarterly evolution of production capacities, pending projects with their expected capacities, evolution of quarterly production, regional distribution and evolution of biomethane facilities with their maximum production capacities and the share injected into the gas distribution system, regional distribution of pending projects with their expected maximum production capacities.
[en] This legal document contains the different modifications and additional arrangements brought to different articles and chapters of the French Code of Energy in order to integrate and to take into account the development of the use of renewable hydrogen as an energy vector, and thus its production, various characteristics of its transport and distribution (traceability for example), administrative and control aspects
[en] The Orano group is a recognized international operator in the field of nuclear materials, mastering cutting-edge technologies and offering its customers high value-added products and services throughout the entire fuel cycle. It thus contributes to the production of low carbon electricity. With profound changes at work in a world facing climate, energy, economic and health challenges, Orano has sought to build a renewed strategic vision A collective undertaking over a period of more than 18 months. In 2020, the Group carried out a collective exercise in co-construction involving the Executive Committee, 1,300 of the Group's managers and co-workers, and more than 130 external stakeholders (customers, suppliers, elected officials, etc.) to reshape its strategic vision. The outcome of this collective reflection was the definition of a purpose, a set of commitments and a road-map to 2030, which now constitute our vision for the company. Through its actions, Orano intends to contribute to the fight against global warming, to the preservation of natural resources and to human health, all of which are major challenges of our century, and Orano is making them central to its purpose: 'To develop know-how in the transformation and control of nuclear materials, for the climate, for a healthy and resource-efficient world, now and tomorrow'. The Group's purpose was validated by the Board of Directors. To meet each of its commitments, Orano has set objectives for the period up to 2030, a 10-year horizon compatible with the transformation that the group wishes to carry out. In order to give a strong impetus to this approach, quantified markers have been set by the teams for as early as 2025.
[en] Hydrogen is the most abundant chemical element in the universe, but producing it in pure form for a range of industrial processes is energy intensive, with a significant carbon footprint. Nuclear power reactors can be coupled with a hydrogen production plant to efficiently produce both energy and hydrogen as a cogeneration system. For hydrogen production, the cogeneration system is fitted with components for either electrolysis or thermochemical processes. Water electrolysis operates at relatively low temperatures of around 80 deg. C to 120 deg. C, while steam electrolysis operates at much higher temperatures and is therefore more efficient. Steam electrolysis could be ideal for integration with advanced high temperature nuclear power plants, as the process requires heat input at around 700 deg. C to 950 deg. C. Thermochemical processes can produce hydrogen by inducing chemical reactions with specific compounds at high temperatures to split water molecules. Advanced nuclear reactors capable of operating at very high temperatures can also be used to produce heat for these processes. Several countries are now implementing or exploring hydrogen production using nuclear power plants to help decarbonize their energy, industrial and transportation sectors. It is also a way to get more out of a nuclear power plant, which can help to increase its profitability. The IAEA provides support to countries interested in hydrogen production through initiatives including coordinated research projects and technical meetings. It has also developed the Hydrogen Economic Evaluation Program (HEEP), a tool for assessing the economics of large-scale hydrogen production via nuclear energy. The IAEA also released an e-learning course on hydrogen production through nuclear cogeneration in early 2020. Translation of an article published in the IAEA Bulletin, September 2020, Vol. 61-3.
[en] A new term is now on fashion: 'Agrivoltaism'. It is presented as one of the means to reach photovoltaic objectives for France. In the farmer world, this perspective produces hopes and concerns. Concerns are related to surfaces which solar promoters aim at using for photovoltaic energy production: this amount can be seen as farmers who will be unable to settle. This solar production could become the main agricultural production. But some issues are also raised regarding the installation of panels over the crops, and some technical developments can be exploited to reduce the associated shade. A study published by the Ademe is evoked. The most important point is related to the needed development of a well suited regulation
[en] This report analyzes fossil fuel financing from the world's 60 largest commercial and investment banks - aggregating their leading roles in lending and underwriting of debt and equity issuances - and finds that these banks poured a total of $3.8 trillion into fossil fuels from 2016-2020.1 Fossil fuel financing dropped 9% last year, parallel to the global drop in fossil fuel demand and production due to the COVID-19 pandemic.2 And yet 2020 levels remained higher than in 2016, the year immediately following the adoption of the Paris Agreement. The overall fossil fuel financing trend of the last five years is still heading definitively in the wrong direction, reinforcing the need for banks to establish policies that lock in the fossil fuel financing declines of 2020, lest they snap back to business-as-usual in 2021. JPMorgan Chase remains the world's worst banker of fossil fuels over this time period, though its funding did drop significantly last year. Citi follows as the second-worst fossil bank, followed by Wells Fargo, Bank of America, RBC, and MUFG. Barclays is the worst in Europe and Bank of China is the worst in China. This report also tracks funding for 100 top fossil fuel expansion companies and finds JPMorgan Chase, Citi, and Bank of America to be their biggest bankers over the last half decade, all with significant increases in funding last year despite voicing their support for the Paris Agreement. Banking on Climate Chaos 2021 also assesses banks' future-facing policies to restrict financing for fossil fuels, and finds that UniCredit has the strongest policy overall, though it only earned about half of the available points - underscoring that the banking sector remains far from committing to a complete exit from fossil fuel financing. The report also assesses bank financing for and policies regarding top companies in key fossil fuel sectors, and details case studies where this financing has resulted in harmful impacts on communities around the world. Tar sands oil: 2016-2020 financing was dominated by the Canadian banks, led by TD and RBC, as well as JPMorgan Chase. The Line 3 pipeline is an example of how bank financing backs tar sands expansion and Indigenous rights violations. Arctic oil and gas: Banks have made recent policy progress in this area by restricting direct financing for projects in the region. JPMorgan Chase, ICBC, China Minsheng Bank, and Sberbank are the biggest funders since the Paris Agreement of companies with major operations in the Arctic. Offshore oil and gas: Though it has strong policies on unconventional oil and gas, BNP Paribas's largely unrestricted financing for the supermajors allowed it to emerge as the world's worst banker of offshore oil and gas over the last five years. Fracked oil and gas: From development of Argentina's Vaca Muerta shale field, to pipelines like Mountain Valley and Coastal GasLink, the fracking sector presents health hazards to local communities on top of rights and climate impacts. U.S. banks like Wells Fargo and JPMorgan Chase dominate fracking financing, with Barclays, MUFG, and Mizuho as the biggest funders outside of North America. Liquefied natural gas (LNG): Reflecting the misguided notion that gas will serve as transition fuel for the coming decades, bank financing for the 30 largest LNG companies was higher in 2020 than in any year since the Paris Agreement's adoption. The sector's biggest bankers over the last half decade, Morgan Stanley, Citi, and JPMorgan Chase, don't have policies restricting financing for LNG. Coal mining: Chinese banks Industrial Bank, China Construction Bank, and Bank of China lead financing for coal mining, and lack policies to rein in this financing. BNP Paribas, BPCE/Natixis, Credit Mutuel, and UniCredit have best-in-class coal mining policy restrictions. Coal power: Coal power financing post- Paris Agreement is led by Bank of China, ICBC, and China CITIC Bank. Multiple coal power case studies are highlighted in the pages that follow, demonstrating in particular Chinese and Japanese bank support for new coal projects even in our climate-constrained world. This year's report also assesses the current wave of bank commitments to reduce their financed emissions to 'net zero by 2050', as well as related policies like measuring and disclosing financed emissions, and emphasizes that no bank making a climate commitment for 2050 should be taken seriously unless it also acts on fossil fuels in 2021. Moreover, until the banks prove otherwise, the 'net' in 'net zero' leaves room for emissions targets that fall short of what the science demands, based on copious offsetting or absurd assumptions about future carbon-capture schemes, as well as the rights violations and fraud that often come hand in hand with offsetting and carbon markets.
[fr]Le rapport Banking on Climate Chaos 2021 a revele que les 60 plus grandes banques du monde ont accorde $3 800 milliards aux entreprises actives dans les secteurs du petrole, du gaz et du charbon depuis l'Accord de Paris, avec des financements plus hauts en 2020 qu'en 2016, et ce surtout en France. Issu de la collaboration entre Reclaim Finance, Rainforest Action Network, BankTrack, Indigenous Environmental Network, Oil Change International et le Sierra Club, le rapport a ete soutenu par plus de 300 organisations de 50 pays du monde entier. Le nombre de banques analysees globalement passe de 35 a 60 dans cette 12eme edition du rapport. Avec un montant de $86 milliards, les banques francaises atteignent la 4eme place mondiale du classement en 2020 en termes de soutien aux energies fossiles (et 1ere en Europe). Les financements de ces grandes banques ont presque double entre 2016 et 2020 (soit en moyenne de 19% par an), avec un montant total de $295 milliards, en pleine contradiction avec l'objectif de s'aligner avec 1,5 deg. C. Avec pres de $41 milliards de financements aux energies fossiles en 2020, BNP Paribas est la banque qui a le plus augmente ses soutiens entre 2019 et 2020 au niveau international. Malgre ses politiques sectorielles considerees comme etant plus ambitieuses que les autres, en 2020, BNP Paribas est 4eme principal pourvoyeur de financements aux energies fossiles, et 1ere en Europe. Barclays reste neanmoins a la premiere place europeenne et donc egalement anglaise pour l'ensemble de la periode 2016-2020. Les banques basees aux etats-Unis continuent d'etre les plus grands moteurs mondiaux d'emissions en 2020, JPMorgan Chase restant la pire banque fossile au monde. Les politiques des banques chinoises et japonaises en matiere de petrole, gaz et charbon sont egalement tres problematique, avec MIFG et la Bank of China etant en tete du classement des banques polluantes dans ces deux pays. Le rapport revele que ces banques ont verse la somme $1 500 milliards dans 100 grandes entreprises a l'origine de projets d'expansion des energies fossiles - ce qui represente une augmentation alarmante de 10 % en 2020 par rapport a l'annee precedente, et ce en depit de la recession suscitee par la pandemie qui a entraine une baisse de pres de 9 % des financements aux energies fossiles au niveau international. Cela comprend les entreprises a l'origine de projets tres controverses comme l'oleoduc de sables bitumineux Line 3 d'Enbridge, qui fait partie des 20 etudes de cas du rapport. Alors que le financement des sables bitumineux a poursuivi une tendance a la baisse, diminuant de 27% en 2020 pour atteindre 16 milliards de dollars, le financement des mines de charbon a lui legerement augmente en 2020 pour atteindre $25,4 milliards; c'est 25% de plus qu'en 2016. Le financement des banques pour le petrole et le gaz de schiste a diminue de 8 % et reste encore domine par les banques americaines. Le financement bancaire des 30 plus grandes entreprises de GNL etait plus eleve en 2020 qu'au cours de toute autre annee depuis l'Accord de Paris, a $28,8 milliards, ce qui reflete une idee erronee selon laquelle le gaz sert d'energie de transition. Selon les auteurs du rapport, les banques doivent adopter des plans d'action effectifs pour 2021 et remplacer les promesses lointaines de 'net-zero' (faites par 17 de ces banques) par des politiques significatives promulguant une tolerance zero pour les developpeurs des energies fossiles. Avant la COP26 a Glasgow, il est egalement crucial que les pays rendent compte du role que jouent leurs banques dans les emissions. En France, le gouvernement devrait agir et obliger les banques a adopter des politiques de sortie du petrole et du gaz non conventionnels.
[en] Wolfgang Palz has been in charge of the solar energy in the European Commission. In this note, he analyses the 'hydrogen' phenomenon. He first outlines the first interest in green hydrogen as it appeared in an R and D programme launched in 1975 by the EU. He notably outlines the strong relationship between solar and hydrogen, and the one between hydroelectricity and hydrogen. In a second part, he discusses the present situation where green hydrogen is on the agenda, notably in relationship with climate change issues, and in a context of strong development of renewable energies. He briefly evokes the present situation of hydrogen markets, and discusses the challenge of an intensification of green hydrogen development on energy markets (still small share in individual vehicles, challenges related to this issue, issue of hydrogen competitiveness). He comments the evolution of the penetration ratio of renewable energies since 2000, the definition of new strategies of development of green hydrogen in the EU, in some of its member states, and in other countries. He indicates some industrial initiatives and projects related to green hydrogen.